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Poor choice of rural electrification options make electrification expensive and hence unaffordable. In this study, options for rural electrification of Arua district were proposed. Designs for the options considered were based on the electricity demand and environmental conditions of Arua district. From the designs, capital costs for each options were determined. This was used in carrying out simulations in HOMER computer programme to come up with the most cost effective options. For 0.103 kW and 554 Wh/day demand, solar PV system was the best option, above 0.103 kW biogas co-fired diesel generator was the best option, for large loads (500 kW) within a distance of 75.1km from the power plant, grid extension is the best option.

Arua district is one of the districts in west Nile region of Uganda about 500 km from Kampala. Altitude is 1100 m above sea and average solar radiation of 5 kWh/M2/day . Rural electrification, RE is the process of bringing electrical power to rural and remote areas. In this study electrification options were considered for secondary schools, health centres , households and trading centre loads using solar PV system, diesel generators, biogas co-fired diesel generators (substitution ratio 8.5:1) and grid extension. 80% of the population use kerosene to meet their energy needs. This fuel based lighting is inefficient, expensive, dangerous and unhealthy causing a respiratory and eye problems to students and women who use it during cooking. It is also inadequate for students to do homework. With rural electrification of Arua district peoples activities shall increase beyond day light hours, boost cottage industries, improve health service delivery in health centres especially at night and improve peoples social lives.

Poor choice of rural electrification options make power generated very expensive, unreliable and unaffordable hence leading to abandonment of such rural electrification projects or failure to achieve its intended benefits such as reducing poverty, improving health service delivery and peoples social life. This has led to loss of millions of shillings by small businesses and death in rural hospitals and health centers.


General objective To propose options for rural electrification in Arua district. Specific objectives To assess electricity demand at house hold, health centre and school level. To determine the most cost effective options. To review different technologies already in use.

Data collection methods The study employed the following techniques: Observation The wattages of electrical appliances (bulbs, fridges, etc) were checked and recorded. This was done in 3 health centres , 3 schools and 1 household visited. This was used for determining the electricity demand. Questionnaire Questionnaires were distributed to 100 heads of households. the questionnaire had answers to each question and the respondents ticked those which applied to them.

Focus group discussion

A group of 10 people in Omuriba village Madi okollo county were asked about the cost of local materials used for constructing a biogas plant (digester) and the priority electricity needs of the people. A group of 7 people were asked in Mvara Zambia zone Ayivu county. The discussion was guided by questions asked by the researcher.

Measurement For daily discharge of 29 herds of cattle.

Fresh dung from 6:00 pm to 8:00am was collected and weighed from a bucket and the weight recorded.
Room sizes for permanent and grass thatched houses were measured with measuring tape. This was done to estimate lighting loads and hence overall electricity demand at house hold level.

Sources of data Grid data Specific capital, and operation and maintenance cost for 11 kV transmission line was obtained from rural electrification agency, REA. The trading centre electricity demand was obtained from WENRECO data on wind speed for Arua district was obtained from Arua meteorological centre. This data was used in sizing short transmission line. Solar data. Monthly solar radiation data was obtained from the meteorological centre in Kampala. This data was used in sizing solar PV system. The prices for solar PV system components were obtained from Ultra Tec solar company and Davis & Shirtlif. Generator data The prices and technical data sheets for diesel generators were obtained from Mantrac, Energy solutions and Logistics (ESL) and Power Products Uganda Limited (PPUL). The information about temperature, relative humidity and wind speeds and latitude for Arua district were obtained from Arua meteorological centre. This data was used in determining the nominal power of diesel generators.

Lighting design.[11] Flux inst, =E*A/(MF*UF) No. of bulb = /flux of bulb Solar PV system sizing [3] Daily discharge , D.D = Total energy/system voltage Battery capacity, B.C =D.D/30% discharge. Charging batteries, C.B=B.C/eff. Of battery Energy from panels, EP = (C.B*sys. Voltage)/eff. Of inst. Power of panels= EP/hrs of good sunshine Generator capacity [3] Apparent power = load/p.f Engine performance reductions 3*2.5% for altitude = 7% for higher altitude = 1100m 2*3% for higher temperature = 6% for higher temp. 40 0c 3% for higher relative humidity = 3% for R.H above 80% Total = 16.5% Nominal power = 1.165* apparent power

3 phase 3 wire short transmission line [5] Distance, L = 10 km, Line voltage, VR = 11 kV Line current , P=3VRIcosR Line losses, PL=3I2R Power sent, PS=P+PL Sag , S = WrL2/8T0 Conductor spacing, d= 500+18V+l2/50,mm [8] Inductive reactance, XL=2fLl Sending end phase voltage, VS = VR + IRcos R + IXLsinR Line sending end voltage, VSL=31/2 *VS

Biogas digester design [17] Daily discharge, TD Total solid, TS=TD*Tf Total influent required, T.I = 100/8*TS Water added, Wa = T.I TD Volume of digester, V = (Vgs+Vf)/0.8 Volume of hydraulic chamber, VH=Vgs=0.5TS*G.P Yield of biogas, yb=TS*G.P Energy, E = yb* LHV*eff. generator


HOMER programme is an economic analysis programme. Equipment to consider Enter capital, replacement, O$M and grid power costs. Capacity of components, loads, choice of fuel, fuel consumption. Resources Enter temp., dung feed and price, diesel price, solar radiation


The table showing electricity demand
Level Household Demand Varies, 16 W to 5 kW Health centres and schools Varies, 0.54 kW to 15 kW Trading centre About 500 kW

Trading centre load
11 kV transmission line results
Line voltage Sending end voltage Power sent Diameter of conductor Max. sag Conductor spacing Length of conductor Number of poles Cross arms (160 mm length) Pin insulators (150*137mm) Transformer Capital cost

11 kV 11.425 kV 529.2 kW 5 mm 0.3 m 75 cm 30,006 m 200 200 600 11 kV/400 V $ 35,000 USD/ km

Trading center
Nominal power for generator = 725 kVA, p.f =0.8 Cost = $ 157,180 USD

Household load
Table showing results for 103 W and 544 Wh load, PV
Item Result Selected and cost

Battery capacity Panels Inverter Charge controller

185 Ah 197 W 206 W

12V/200Ah, Vision 6FM 200D: $700 USD 3 panels, 75 W: 1W = $ 4.55 USD 350 W, ultra power inverter: $ 90 USD 12 V/10 A, PR 2020 steca SCC: $ 145 USD

Nominal power of diesel generators = 121 VA Available generator in the market = 2.5 kVA , P.f=0.8
Cost = $1,075 USD

Biogas plant for 29 herds of cattle
Item Daily discharge Result 73.8 kg/day

Water to be added Volume of digester Volume of hydraulic chamber

Yield of biogas Energy Cost of the plant

74 L/day 7.5 M3 1.77 M3

3.5 M3 /day or 3500 L/day 15.78 kWh/day $ 393 USD

school and health centre load for 800 W,5150Wh Solar PV system results
Item Battery capacity Panels Inverter Charge controller Result 858 Ah 1831 W 2400 W Selected and Cost 10 first power-ultra power 24V/100 Ah $ 2,250 USD 24 panels, 75 W: $ 7800 USD 24V/3000 W, Victron inverter, $900 USD 40 A/12V/24V, regulator: $ 200 USD

The nominal power of generator for the is 1.5 kVA. Generator available in the market, 2.5 kVA. P.f = 0.8 Cost = $1,075 USD


Large loads, Offaka sub county Headquarters 10 km 725 kVA generator and grid extension were considered. When
Costs Grid Generator Capital 35,000$/km O&M 160$/km/yr Grid power price 0.2$/kWh 1.1$/L Diesel price

The breakeven grid extension distance was 75.1 km, meaning that grid extension is the best option. When the costs changes to:
Cost Grid Generator Capital 50,000$/km O&M 300$/km/yr Grid power 0.2$/kWh 0.5$/L Diesel

The breakeven grid extension distance was reduced to 14.6km meaning grid extension still remains the best option. Emissions 725 kVA diesel generator produced following pollutants: carbon dioxide 2,780,784kg/yr and carbon monoxide 7,086kg/yr .With grid extension all these emissions are reduced.

Household loads 103 W peak load: 2 kW diesel and biogas co-fired diesel generators and solar PV System were considered. When

Biogas co-fire Diesel generator


1.1$/L 1.1$/L


ThePV cost effective4550$/kW most option was solar PV system with capital cost of $2514USD and total system cost of $4228 USD for 20 years. Second best option was biogas co-fired diesel generator with total system cost of $12,933 USD in 3.4 years operating for 12 hrs/day. Using 2 kW diesel generator is not cost effective. If PV capital cost increases to 6370$/kW and diesel price reduce to 0.55$/L, solar PV system still remains the best option. Emissions No pollutants were emitted by solar PV System. 114 kg/yr of carbon dioxide is emitted with biogas co-fired diesel generator.

2.3 kW peak load 3 kW biogas co-fired diesel generator, 3 kW diesel generator and solar PV system were considered. When The best option was biogas co-fired diesel PV capital cost 4550$/kW generator with total system cost of $10,589 Diesel 1.1$/L USD within 8 years. Operating for 5 hrs/day. Dung 3$/t Second best was diesel generator with total system cost of $17,243 USD within 8 years operating for 5 hrs/day. Using solar PV system was not cost effective. If diesel price reduces to 0.88$/L, biogas co-fired diesel generator still remains the best option.
4 kW peak load

4.5 kW diesel generators were used. Solar PV system was not used because it wasnt cost effective for 2.3 kW peak load When cow dung was 1.2$/t and diesel price is 1.1$/L; biogas co-fired diesel generator was the best option.

Schools and health centres 15 kW peak load 20 kW biogas co-fired and 18 kW diesel generators were considered. For cow dung at 6$/t and diesel price of 1.1$/L.biogas co-fired diesel generator was the best option with total system cost of $91,898 USD within 6 years operating for 7hrs/day. The total cost of diesel fired generator is $213,126 USD within 6 year working for 7 hrs/day.


Level Trading centre (up to 75.1 km) Household

Load (kW) 500 0.016 to 0.103 Above 0.103 to 5

Best option Grid extension Solar PV system Biogas co-fired diesel generators Biogas co-fired diesel generators

2nd option Biogas co-fired diesel generators Diesel generator Diesel generator

Sch. & health centres

1.2 to 15

Demand at trading centre level is about 500 kW and the break even for grid extension is 75.1 km from the substation or generating plant. The loads at household level ranges from as low as 16 W to 5 kW. For 103 W peak load, the most cost effective option was solar PV system with capital cost of $2514USD and total system cost of $4228 USD for 20 years. The second best option was biogas co-fired diesel generator with total system cost of $12,933 USD in 3.4 years operating for 12 hrs/day. While using 2 kW diesel generator is not cost effective. For 4 kW and 2.3 kW peak loads, a biogas co-fired generator is the best option. The load in schools and health centres ranges from 1.2 kW to 15 kW For schools and health centres with load of up to 15 kW, biogas cofired generator is the best because total system cost of 20 kW biogas co-fired dies el is $91,898 USD within 6 years operating for 7hrs/day compared to the total cost of 18 kW diesel fired generator with total system cost of $213,126 USD within 6 year working for 7 hrs/day. Therefore, where biogas can not be generated, diesel generators should be used.

The following areas are recommended for further research: Wind electrification technology and mini-hydro power generation options should be assessed and included in the options. Practical assessment of electricity demand at trading centre level should also be done.

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