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Conflict and Negotiation

Presented by
Philip. Ajai K. G Elizabeth

Working together isnt always easy

Chung and Megginson define conflict as

the struggle between incompatible or opposing need, wishes, ideas , interests or people. Conflict arises when individuals or groups encounter goals that both parties cannot obtain satisfactorily.

therefore conflict is a
Process Is a perception issue That arises from disagreements or incompatibility of Needs interests or concerns Between parties

Why Conflict Arises


Type A Personality
Highly Competitive Strong Personality Restless when inactive Seeks Promotion Punctual Thrives on deadlines Maybe jobs at once

Type B Personality
Works methodically Rarely competitive Enjoys leisure time Does not anger easily Does job well but doesnt need recognition Easy-going

Aggressive People
Body language
Stiff and straight Points, bangs tables to emphasize points Folds arms across body

Verbal language
I want you to You must Do what I tell you! Youre stupid! Aggressive people are basically insecure.. Try to avoid them.

Submissive people
Body Language
Avoids eye contact Stooped posture Speaks quietly Fidgets

Verbal Language
Im sorry Its all my fault Oh dear

Submissive people have a great sense of inferiority

Assertive People
Body language
Stands straight Appears composed Smiles Maintains eye contact

Verbal language
Lets How shall we do this? I think What do you think? I would like

Personalities who cause conflict

Aggressor Passive Absentee Negative attitude Chatterbox Do nothing Error prone


Needs Perceptions Power Values Feelings and emotions

Causes of conflicts and disputes

Simple misunderstandings Interest Conflicts Needs Conflicts Moral or Value Conflicts Power Conflicts Data or Factual Conflicts Troubled History Past grievances and distrust

Simple misunderstandings

Interest Conflicts

Needs Conflicts




Moral or Value Conflicts

Power Conflicts

Data or Factual Conflicts

Troubled History Past grievances and distrust

Conflict in an organization may arise from

Incompatibility of goals Differences over interpretations of facts Disagreements based on behavioral

expectations and the like

Transitions in Conflict Thought

Traditional View of Conflict
The belief that all conflict is harmful and must be avoided
Prevalent view in the 1930s-1940s

Conflict resulted from:

Poor communication Lack of openness Failure to respond to employee needs
2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 15-22

Continued Transitions in Conflict Thought

Human Relations View of Conflict
The belief that conflict is a natural and inevitable outcome in any group Prevalent from the late 1940s through mid-1970s

Interactionist View of Conflict

The belief that conflict is not only a positive force in a group but that it is absolutely necessary for a group to perform effectively Current view

Forms of Interactionist Conflict

Functional Conflict
Conflict that supports the goals of the group and improves its performance

Dysfunctional Conflict
Conflict that hinders group performance

2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved.


Types of Interactionist Conflict

Task Conflict
Conflicts over content and goals of the work Low-to-moderate levels of this type are FUNCTIONAL

Relationship Conflict
Conflict based on interpersonal relationships Almost always DYSFUNCTIONAL

Process Conflict
Conflict over how work gets done Low levels of this type are FUNCTIONAL
2009 Prentice-Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 15-25

Conflict process
Stage 1 Potential opposition Stage 2
Cognition and personalization

Stage 3 Behavior

Stage 4 outcomes

originator condition Communication Structure Personal variables

Perceived conflict

Increased group performance Overt conflict

Felt conflict Conflict handling behaviors

Competition Collaboration Accommodation Avoidance compromise

Decreased group performance

Stage I: Potential Opposition or Incompatibility

Communication Structure

Semantic difficulties, misunderstandings, and noise

Size and specialization of jobs Member/goal incompatibility Leadership styles Dependence/interdependence of groups

Personal Variables

Differing individual value systems Personality types

Stage II: Cognition and Personalization

Perceived Conflict Awareness by one or more parties of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise. Felt Conflict Emotional involvement in a conflict creating anxiety, tenseness, frustration, or hostility.

Stage III: Behavior

Conflict handling behaviors are initiated . Five conflict handling approaches are available they are competition, collaboration, avoidance, accommodation and compromise.

Competing A desire to satisfy ones interests, regardless of the impact on the other party to the conflict.

A situation in which the parties to a conflict each desire to satisfy fully the concerns of all parties. Avoiding The desire to withdraw from or suppress a conflict.

The willingness of one party in a conflict to place the opponents interests above his or her own.

A situation in which each party to a conflict is willing to give up something.

Stage IV: Outcomes

Functional Outcomes from Conflict

Increased group performance

Improved quality of decisions Stimulation of creativity and innovation Encouragement of interest and curiosity Provision of a medium for problem-solving

Creation of an environment for selfevaluation and change

Dysfunctional Outcomes from Conflict

Development of discontent
Reduced group effectiveness

Retarded communication
Reduced group cohesiveness Infighting among group members overcomes group goals

Conflict management
The use of resolution and stimulation techniques to achieve the desired level of conflict.

Conflict management techniques

Conflict resolution techniques Problem solving. Expansion of resources Avoidance Smoothing Compromise Authoritative command

Conflict stimulation techniques Communication Brining in outsiders Restructuring the organization


A process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them.

Bargaining Strategies
Distributive Bargaining Negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources; a win-lose situation. Integrative Bargaining Negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a win-win solution.

The Negotiation Process

Preparation &planning

Definition of general rules

Clarification & justification Bargaining & problem solving

Closure& implementation

Issues in Negotiation
The Role of Personality Traits in


Gender Differences in Negotiations Cultural difference in negotiation

Third-Party Negotiations

A neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning, persuasion, and suggestions for alternatives.

A third party to a negotiation who has the authority to dictate an agreement.

A trusted third party who provides an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent. .
Consultant An impartial third party, skilled in conflict management, who attempts to facilitate creative problem solving through communication and analysis.

Improving Negotiation Skills

Research your opponent Begin with a positive overture Address the problem not the personalities Pay little attention to initial offers Emphasize win-win solution Create an open and trusting climate

Expected questions.
What is conflict? How can conflict be managed successfully? What are the stages in conflicts?
What is negotiation?
What are the different strategies involved in