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ENGLISH FOR CHEMISTS Lesson 6

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GV: Chu Nht Bng Trng H B Ra-Vng Tu


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English Verbs
Verb

Tense Irregular verbs The subjunctive mood

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Verb Tenses
Verb tenses define the time when an action occurs. They are constructed by: 1. The main verb and, in some cases 2. The helping verbs

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4 principal parts of Verbs


The

infinitive The present participle The past The past participle

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The infinitive
The

verb: to cook The infinitive: cook The basic form: cook

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The present participle


Ends

in ing Use with helping verb: to be The verb: to cook The present participle: cooking Ex: I was cooking breakfast when the telephone rang.

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The present participle vs Gerund


The

present participle of cook: cooking Gerund of cook : cooking Gerund is used in place of a noun Ex: Cooking is my favorite hobby.

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The past
Usually

ends in ed cooked Ex: I cooked dinner for my family yesterday.

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The past participle


Usually

ends in ed Used with helping verb: to have have cooked


Ex:

I have cooked breakfast for my family many times.

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1. Present tense
The

present tense describes action happening now. Verb: basic form Ex: - I cook breakfast every morning. - He cooks breakfast for his wife every day.

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2. Past tense
The

past tense describes action happening in the past. Verb: past form Ex: - He cooked dinner last night.

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3. Future tense
The

future tense describes action happening in the future Verb: will + basic form
Ex:

- He will cook dinner for us tomorrow.

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4. Present perfect tense


The

present perfect tense describes action happening in the past up to the present. Verb: to have + past participle
Ex:

- He has cooked dinner for his family every day for the last year.

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5. Past participle tense


The

past perfect tense describes action happening in the past before some other past-tense action. Verb: had + past participle
Ex:

- He had cooked the dinner when suddenly the doorbell rang.

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6. Future perfect tense


The

future perfect tense describes action happening in the future before some other future-tense action. Verb: will have + past participle
Ex:

He will cook dinner tomorrow night, and then he will have cooked dinner for us for a week.

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Exercise
1. I am a student at the Henderson Academy; I study there for the past two years. 2. By the time of our arrival in Houston next Sunday, we have traveled over five hundred miles. 3. Before he sprained his ankle, Charles exercises in the weight room three times a week. 4. When she applied for her job at the airline, Diane stated that she had served in the U.S. Air Force. 10/22/12

Irregular verbs
1.

Be (am/are/is) Am/ are/is being Was/ were Have/has been

1.

1.

1.

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Mistakes
1. 2.

Be constructed as regular verb Using the past where the PP should be used, or vice versa.

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Subjunctive mood
1. To express the formal or recommendation in that-clause. - She asked that the workers complete the their report by the end of the day. 2.To describe an unreal or doubtful condition. Often use in if-clause - If I had a million dollars, I would travel around the world.

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Pronunciation
*3 rules for -ed ending: Rule #1 If a word ends in an unvoiced consonant, when adding -ed, just add an Unvoiced T Ex: -Today I jump, yesterday I jumped. (pronounced jump-T) -Today I walk, yesterday I walked. (pronounced walk-T)

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Pronunciation
#2 If a word ends in a voiced consonant, add a Voiced D Ex: I cleaned the kitchen. I poured the milk. I spilled some juice. I moved to California. The clock buzzed all night.
Rule

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Pronunciation
#3 If a word ends in a T or a D sound, we add a Voiced ED Ex: I heated up my dinner. He voted this morning. He handed me his report.
Rule

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Pronunciation
-ng Ex:

ending sound

Ring Sing Thing Bring

- I have a feeling that she is working too much. - She has been wearing a hearing aid so that she could sing. - He is looking forward to speaking at the Thanksgiving celebration.
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