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Power System Engineering

Dr. Ganesh B. Kumbhar gkumbfee@iitr.ernet.in Phone: 01332-28-4752

Introduction

Power System provides vital service to the society and mankind. Electrical power is somewhat like air we breathe: We think of it only when it is missing. Modern society cannot exists without electricity. Therefore, it should be operated with the following objectives minimize operating cost maintain balance between generated power and load including interchange transactions maintain nominal frequency maintain operating conditions within equipment rating maintain voltage within permissible limits maintain power reserves in order to minimize the risk of loss of load in the event of random generator outages meet pollution constraints

Historical Background

1870's and 1880s; DC power systems were popular. Small systems were sold to factories around the world, both in urban areas, and remote undeveloped areas for industrial/mining use. 1882: Power station at Pearl Station New York by Edison supplying power to 59 consumers, 110 V DC, Cable 1.5 km, lamp load. 1884: Motors were developed 1886: Limitations of AC become apparent, higher losses and voltage drops. 1889: AC transmission line 4kV, single phase, in north America between Willamette falls to Portland by Westinghouse. 1893: First three phase line in Southern California, 12 km, 2.3 kV, 1995: Niagara

falls AC power plants (>40 km, 2.3 kV),

phenomenal growth in

electric companies, 1922-1990: 165 kV -> 1100 kV 1920: Europe standardized 60 Hz and suspended insulators for HV. 1954: HVDC transmission system by Swedish Power Board. 1972: Back-to-back connected HVDC station providing asynchronous tie between power systems Quebec and New Brunswick.

Voltage Levels Vs. Year


Year 1922 1923 Voltage Level 165 220

1935 1953
1965 1966 1990

287 330
500 kV 765 kV 1100 kV

Introduction

We are witnessing enormous development in terms of voltage rating, power ratings, components, architecture, planning, etc. Modern power system are vast electrical networks inter-connecting hundreds of rudimentary systems spread over a country giving rise to national grid.

Advantages of interconnections:

Reduced reserve capacity Reduced capital cost

Effective and economic use of available generation


Improved reliability and operational efficiency

Disadvantages

Fault propagation Higher circuit breaker ratings Proper management of dispatch of power

Introduction

Power system is the branch of electrical engineering where we study in depth for its design, operation, maintenance and analysis.

Power System Engineering is one of the important and core subject of electrical engineering.
The ease of transmission of electrical energy gives rise to a possibility to a generating electrical energy in bulk at the centralized place and transmit it over large distance to be used by a large number of users. Component needed for generation, transmission and distribution of electrical energy form a huge complex system termed as Electric Power System. The development of power system has contributed to the phenomenal advances of human kind over past century.

Syllabus

Syllabus

Syllabus

Syllabus

Introduction

Power System provides vital service to the society. Electrical power is somewhat like air we breathe: We think of it only when it is missing. Modern society cannot exists without electricity. Therefore, it should be operated with the goal of achieving

Highest reliability standards


Lowest operational cost Minimum environmental impact

Historical Background

1882: Power station at Pearl Station New York by Edison supplying power to 59 consumers. 1889: AC transmission line 4kV, single phase, in north America between Willamette falls to Portland by Westinghouse. 1893: First three phase line in Southern California.

1954: HVDC transmission system by Swedish Power Board.


Modern power system are vast electrical networks interconnecting hundreds of rudimentary systems spread over a country giving rise to national grid. We are witnessing enormous development in terms of voltage rating, power ratings, components, architecture, planning, etc.

Basic Structure of the Power System

In India, power system mostly owned by states called as State Electricity Boards (SEBs). There are five Regional Electricity Boards (REBs): EREB, WREB, NREB, SREB, NEREB. Then, there are Central Govt. Organizations: NTPC, NHPC, NPC, etc. Also, PGCIL responsible for bulk power transfer through extra high voltage transmission. The modern power system can be classified as generation, transmission and distribution.

Structure of Power System

Power Generation

Power generation takes place in power plants which may be geographically dispersed. Power plant may house more than one generating unit. Sources of Energy:

Hydrocarbons (Oil, coal, natural gas, etc.) Water


Solar Wind Tidal

Nuclear
Chemical

Installed Generating Capacity (in MW) in India

24%

64%

3%

8%

Transmission Network

Connect generating plants to the consumption points: use remote energy sources. Interconnect power pools: Reduce generation reserve and cost, increase reliability. High Voltage AC transmission HVDC transmission

High Voltage Transmission


Lower transmission losses/MW transfer. Lower line voltage drop/ km. Higher transmission capacity / km Reduce right of way requirement /MW transfer Lower operating cost / MW transfer

Power Transmission Equipments

Step-up and Step-down Power Transformers. Voltage regulator Phase shifter Transmission lines and cables Circuit breakers and isolators

Shunt and series reactors and capacitors Lightning arresters Protective relays Fact devices (SVC, Statcom, TCSC, etc.) Converter and Inverter

Standard Transmission Voltages in India

AC Transmission

765 kV
400 kV 220 kV 132 kV

HVDC Transmission

400 kV
500 kV