HUMAN GENOME

BY NALINI RANJAN

AN OVERVIEW Complete set of human genetic information .

BY WHOM HGP-HUMAN GENOME PROJECT(2003) PRODUCED THE FIRST COMPLETE SEQUENCES OF INDIVIDUAL AS OF NOW THOUSANDS OF HUMAN GENOME HAVE BEEN SEQUENCED .

REGULATORY DNA SEQUENCES & SEQUENCES TO WHICH NO FUNCTION HAS YET BEEN ASSIGNED .WHAT ACTUALLY IS  HUMAN GENOME =PROTEIN CODING SEQUENCES(1.5%)  REST IS NON CODING RNA MOLECULES.

CODING VS NON CODING DNA CODING DNA :TRANSCRIBED INTO MRNA &TRANSLATED INTO PROTEINS DURING HUMAN LIFE CYCLE  WELL STUDIED AND BEST UNDERSTOOD COMPONENT OF HUMAN GENOME  BUT OCCUPY ONLY A SMALL FRACTION OF HUMAN GENOME  .

NON CODING DNA  MADE UP OF ALL THOSE SEQUENCES THAT ARE NOT USED TO ENCODE PROTEINS SOME OF THEM CONTAINS RNA MOLECULES WITH IMPORTANT BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS (non coding rna like ribosomal & transfer rna) THE EXPLORATION OF THE FUNCTION AND EVOLUTIONARY ORIGIN OF NON CODING DNA IS AN IMPORTANT GOAL OF CONTEMPORY GENOME RESEARCH   .

repetitive DNA sequences & sequences related to mobile genetic element .UNTRANSLATED REGIONS OF mRNA . regulatory DNA sequences .INTRONS.CONTD  NUMEROUS CLASSES OF NON CODING DNA INCLUDE PSEODOGENES.

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CONTD  Iniatially reffered to as “JUNK DNA” but” The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project reported in September 2012 that over 80% of DNA in the human genome "serves some purpose. biochemically speaking" .

WITH THE HELP OF BIOINFORMATICS ONLY  Bioinformatics involves both biology as well as computer .analysis of sequences etc. including human genome. The bioinformatics provides various tools or programs or in other words its a kind of dry lab method(using computer softwares ) undergone for the study and analysis of genome present in an organism . Another aspect of bioinformatics in sequence analysis is the automatic search for genes and regulatory sequences within a genome. . containing billions of nucleotides . Human genome project involves gene splicing . computer programs are used to search the genome of thousands of organisms.

Determining the similarity of two sequences is not as easy as you might think. it was recently reported that the genomes of humans and chimpanzees are 96 percent similar.Contd…. . For example.

yet it is not fully understood  Biological functions of their proteins and RNA products are to be known  Biochemical activities of non coding DNA like regulation of gene expression are the areas of great concern for scientists  .STILL REQUIRED We can read the human genome by DNA sequencing .

SIGNIFICANCE  Worldwide use in biomedical science . anthropology . forensics & other branches of science  Genomic studies will lead to advances in the diagnosis & treatment of diseases .

 .  "About the Human Genome Project: What is the Human Genome Project". The Human Genome Management Information System (HGMIS). "An integrated encyclopedia of DNA elements in the human genome". Nature 489 (7414): 57–74.REFERENCES: The ENCODE Project Consortium (2012). 2011-07-18. Retrieved 2011-09-02.

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