HUMAN GENOME

BY NALINI RANJAN

AN OVERVIEW Complete set of human genetic information .

BY WHOM HGP-HUMAN GENOME PROJECT(2003) PRODUCED THE FIRST COMPLETE SEQUENCES OF INDIVIDUAL AS OF NOW THOUSANDS OF HUMAN GENOME HAVE BEEN SEQUENCED .

REGULATORY DNA SEQUENCES & SEQUENCES TO WHICH NO FUNCTION HAS YET BEEN ASSIGNED .WHAT ACTUALLY IS  HUMAN GENOME =PROTEIN CODING SEQUENCES(1.5%)  REST IS NON CODING RNA MOLECULES.

CODING VS NON CODING DNA CODING DNA :TRANSCRIBED INTO MRNA &TRANSLATED INTO PROTEINS DURING HUMAN LIFE CYCLE  WELL STUDIED AND BEST UNDERSTOOD COMPONENT OF HUMAN GENOME  BUT OCCUPY ONLY A SMALL FRACTION OF HUMAN GENOME  .

NON CODING DNA  MADE UP OF ALL THOSE SEQUENCES THAT ARE NOT USED TO ENCODE PROTEINS SOME OF THEM CONTAINS RNA MOLECULES WITH IMPORTANT BIOLOGICAL FUNCTIONS (non coding rna like ribosomal & transfer rna) THE EXPLORATION OF THE FUNCTION AND EVOLUTIONARY ORIGIN OF NON CODING DNA IS AN IMPORTANT GOAL OF CONTEMPORY GENOME RESEARCH   .

regulatory DNA sequences .CONTD  NUMEROUS CLASSES OF NON CODING DNA INCLUDE PSEODOGENES.INTRONS.repetitive DNA sequences & sequences related to mobile genetic element .UNTRANSLATED REGIONS OF mRNA .

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biochemically speaking" .CONTD  Iniatially reffered to as “JUNK DNA” but” The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project reported in September 2012 that over 80% of DNA in the human genome "serves some purpose.

analysis of sequences etc. The bioinformatics provides various tools or programs or in other words its a kind of dry lab method(using computer softwares ) undergone for the study and analysis of genome present in an organism . Another aspect of bioinformatics in sequence analysis is the automatic search for genes and regulatory sequences within a genome. computer programs are used to search the genome of thousands of organisms. containing billions of nucleotides . Human genome project involves gene splicing . . including human genome.WITH THE HELP OF BIOINFORMATICS ONLY  Bioinformatics involves both biology as well as computer .

For example.Contd…. it was recently reported that the genomes of humans and chimpanzees are 96 percent similar. . Determining the similarity of two sequences is not as easy as you might think.

yet it is not fully understood  Biological functions of their proteins and RNA products are to be known  Biochemical activities of non coding DNA like regulation of gene expression are the areas of great concern for scientists  .STILL REQUIRED We can read the human genome by DNA sequencing .

forensics & other branches of science  Genomic studies will lead to advances in the diagnosis & treatment of diseases .SIGNIFICANCE  Worldwide use in biomedical science . anthropology .

 "About the Human Genome Project: What is the Human Genome Project".REFERENCES: The ENCODE Project Consortium (2012). 2011-07-18. The Human Genome Management Information System (HGMIS). Nature 489 (7414): 57–74. Retrieved 2011-09-02.  . "An integrated encyclopedia of DNA elements in the human genome".