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Short Quiz

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

To gain benefits of exercise, you must exercise everyday. Exercise can help improve depression. Girls will develop large, manly muscles if they lift weights. Lifting weights develops cardiorespiratory endurance. The longer and harder you train, the better your health will be. Anabolic steroids are illegal. Teens need more sleep than their younger siblings or their parents.

Short Quiz - Answers

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

To gain benefits of exercise, you must exercise everyday. (false) Exercise can help improve depression. (true) Girls will develop large, manly muscles if they lift weights. (false) Lifting weights develops cardiorespiratory endurance. (false) The longer and harder you train, the better your health will be. (false) Anabolic steroids are illegal. (false medical), (true athletic) Teens need more sleep than their younger siblings or their parents. (true)

Promotion of Physical Activity

Click Link Physical Activity Gone Bad

What is Physical Activity?

Any Ideas? Physical Activity:
Any form of exercise or movement. Physical activity may include planned activity such as walking, running, basketball, or other sports. Physical activity may also include other daily activities such as household chores, yard work, walking the dog, etc. ...

Physical Activity Benefits

Physical Academic Mental Social

Physical Benefits Bone Density

Increases Bone Strength (Bone Density). Impact through exercise causes bones to increase in density to adapt

for increased stress levels.

Increased muscle strength causes bones to increase in density to

withstand the increased pull that the muscles have on the bones.

Prevention of Osteoporosis

Abnormal loss of Bone Mineral Density

Physical Benefits Bone Density

Once you hit a certain age, bone density starts to

The loss in density cannot be avoided, but the rate can

be slowed through exercise. Prevention of Osteoporosis

Abnormal loss of Bone Mineral Density

Physical Benefits
Normal Bone Density vs. Osteoporosis Bone Density
Normal Osteoporosis

Physical Benefits
Heart/lungs are stronger = more blood/oxygen to circulate. Cholesterol levels are healthy. Strong & healthy blood vessels. Good ratio of muscle mass to body fat.

Metabolism Increases
Process in which body gets energy from food. Increase in muscle mass = more calories burned.

Physical Benefits
Reduces chances of disease (more detail later). More active and capable at any age. Higher energy levels for longer periods. Improves body posture. Improves sleep. Improves Body Mass Index (Next Slide)

Physical Benefits - BMI

Body Mass Index (BMI):

The ratio of your weight to your height. Better indicator of disease risk.


Calculating BMI
1. Multiply your weight in pounds by 703 (e.g. for a person weighing 149 pounds, this would be 149 x 703 = 104,747). 2. Multiply your height in inches times itself (e.g. for a person 65 inches tall, this would be 65 x 65 = 4,225).
3. Divide the answer in Step 1 by the answer in Step 2
(e.g. 104,747 / 4,225 = 24.8).

BMI Teens vs. Adults

BMI calculation is the same for teens/adults. BMI interpretation is different. Healthy ranges cannot be given for teens because:

Teens are constantly changing. Ranges change with each month of age for each gender. Ranges change as height increases for each gender.

BMI Teens
Instead of BMI Ranges, Teens us BMI Percentiles

Weight Status Category Percentile Range

Underweight Healthy Weight Overweight Obese Less than the 5th percentile 5th percentile to less than the 85th percentile 85th to less than the 95th percentile Equal to or greater than the 95th percentile


BMI - Teens
Handout BMI PERCENTILE CHARTS Teen Boys & Teen Girls

Sedentary Lifestyle
Athletes, Physically Fit Students BMI Not As Accurate High Muscle Densities Increased Body Weight Increased Body Weight Skewed BMI #

TEEN BMI Calculator - Internet

http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/dnpabmi/Calculator.aspx CLICK HERE

5 Components of Health-Related Fitness

#1 - Muscular Strength: amount of force a muscle can exert at one time.
Examples of Muscle Strength: - One Rep Max (weightlifting). - Lifting a large box. - Jumping to block a spike (volleyball). -High Jump (track).

5 Components of Health-Related Fitness

#2 - Muscular endurance: ability for muscle to do physical tasks over a period of time.
Examples of Muscle Endurance: - Climbing multiple stairs. - Repeated reps in a set (weightlifting). - Repeated arm swing while weed eating. - Swimming.

5 Components of Health-Related Fitness

#3 Cardiorespiratory Endurance: the ability of your heart, blood vessels, lungs, and blood to deliver oxygen and nutrients to all of your body. Examples of Cardiorespiratory Endurance:
- Walking, Jogging, Running - Jumping Rope - Cycling - Step Test (next slide) 3 Volunteers?

Step Test

Bench 12 high Step with right foot and then left Fully extend legs Step at a rate of 24/min 3 Minutes then find pulse

SCORING: 85-95 beats = Excellent 96-105 beats = Good

106-125 beats = Fair

125 or more = Needs Improvement

5 Components of Health-Related Fitness

#4 - Flexibility: ability to move a body part through a full range of motion.
Examples of Flexibility:

- Serving in Tennis.
- Clipping Toe Nails.

- Basketball Defense Stance.

-Tying Shoes

5 Components of Health-Related Fitness

#5 Body Composition: refers to the ratio of lean body tissue (muscle and bone) to body-fat tissue. Body Composition can Be measured in More Than One Way

Water Tank




Mental Benefits
Intellectually more productive More Alert Relief from stress Depression

Sense of pride/accomplishments
Positive self-esteem (look/feel better)

Social Benefits
Reduces stress levels that could

interfere with relationships

Self-confidence helps thrive in

social situations
Opportunities to interact/cooperate with others

Academic Benefits
Physical Activity = High Brain Function

Physical Activity = Higher Academic Performance

Research agrees!

Academic Benefits
California Department of Education
Researched correlation between fitness scores and academic

scores (884,715 students).

- Looked at aerobic capacity, BMI, abdominal strength, trunk

strength, upper body strength and overall flexibility.

- Students labeled FIT, scored 2x higher on academic tests than

students labeled unfit.

Academic Benefits
University of Illinois - Researched 259 third and fifth grade students.
- Used same fitness tests. - Duplicated results (2x higher performance on academic tests).

- Even higher performance of students scoring higher in BMI and

aerobic capacity tests.

- Took research even further (next slide).

Academic Benefits
University of Illinois - Isolated two groups, Fit and Unfit.
- Brain activity measured by EKG. - Both groups given same tests that measured attention, working

memory and processing speed.

- Fit groups showed more brain activity in the prefrontal cortex

(responsible for executive function and control over other brain processes).

Academic Benefits
The exercise itself doesn't make you smarter, but it puts the brain of the learners in the optimal position for them to learn. - John Ratey, Harvard Professor

Academic Benefits
Benefits also linked to other benefits from physical


Reduced Stress Higher Energy Levels More Alert


Academic Benefits
United States Standardized Tests Scores Have

Continually Declined.
United States obesity rates have dramatically increased

(overweight or obese children rates have tripled since 1980).


Sedentary Lifestyle
Sedentary Lifestyle: A way of life that requires little movement and exercise.

Sedentary Lifestyle
Approaches to Everyday Activities
Taking car to store Using a golf cart Taking the elevator Playing video games

Walking to store Walking with clubs Taking the stairs Playing tennis


Sedentary Lifestyle
Metabolism: process in which body gets energy from food.

Sedentary Lifestyle
Basal Metabolic Rate(resting): minimum rate of energy required to maintain the basic life processes in body.

Exercise Metabolic Rate = Basal + Daily Activity

Think of it this way (next slide)


GAS = Energy

Car = Human Body

Engine = Metabolism

Car Parked Idle Engine Very little Gas

Drive Around Engine Revs Up More Gas Needed


Sedentary Lifestyle
Sedentary Lifestyle = Basal Metabolism

Loss of Bone Density Loss of Muscle Mass More Energy Consumed Than Needed, Stored as Fat

Basal Metabolism + Overeating = Weight Gain (fat)

Sedentary Lifestyle vs. Chronic Disease

Sedentary Lifestyle Leads to Several Chronic Diseases (discussed during the disease unit).
Brief Overview of Some Diseases: - Heart Disease - Diabetes - Stroke - Cancer - High Cholesterol, Blood Pressure - Lung Disease - Arthritis - Osteoporosis - Obesity

Types of Physical Activity

Aerobic: activity in which oxygen is continuously taken in for energy.


Types of Physical Activity

Anaerobic: Intense burst of activity in which the muscles work
so hard that they produce energy without using oxygen.


Variations of Anaerobic:
Isometric: little or no movement.

Isotonic: muscle contraction with repeated movement.

Isokenitic: variable resistance to a movement, so that no matter how much effort is exerted, the movement takes place at a constant speed.

Planning Your Fitness Program


Neck Wrist

Do not use thumb!

Finding Beats Per Minute

1 Minute = 60 Seconds Counting Pulse Rate: Count for 6 Seconds = Multiply By 10

Count for 10 Seconds = Multiply By 6

Or. Count For The Whole Minute

Target Heart Rate Zone

Target Heart Rate Zone: Range in which your heart rate
should be during exercise for maximum cardiorespiratory endurance.
1. Find Resting Heart Rate (RHR) 2. Subtract Age From 220 (Maximum Heart Rate - HR) 3. Subtract Resting RHR from MHR

4. Multiply # From Step 3 by 85% and then by 60% (two #s)

5. Add RHR to result when multiplied by 85% (Step 4) 6. Add RHR to result when you multiplied by 60% (Step 4) 7. THIS IS YOUR TARGET HEART RATE ZONE

Target Heart Rate Zone

Hand Out Work Sheets
Each step gives an example of how to calculate through

each step.
Example is for a 24 year old with a resting heart rate of 61

beats per minute.

Work through this work sheet at home!


Planning Your Fitness Program

Before you plan a program, consider the following:

Do you have health concerns, such as diabetes or asthma?

(2) Are you healthy enough to start a program? (3) What types of activities do you enjoy? (4) How much will your planned activities cost?

Planning Your Fitness Program

Set Fitness Goals
SMART Method Goals Should Be Based On The 5 Components of

Physical Fitness.

Muscular Strength Muscular Endurance Cardio Respiratory Endurance Flexibility Body Composition

Physical Activity Recommendations

Key Guidelines for Children and Adolescents: Children and adolescents should do 60 minutes (1 hour) or more of physical activity daily. Aerobic: Most of the 60 or more minutes a day should be either moderate- or vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, and should include vigorous-intensity physical activity at least 3 days a week.

Physical Activity Recommendations

Muscle-strengthening: As part of their 60 or more minutes of daily physical activity, children and adolescents should include muscle-strengthening physical activity on at least 3 days of the week.

Bone-strengthening: As part of their 60 or more minutes of daily physical activity, children and adolescents should include bonestrengthening physical activity on at least 3 days of the week.

Planning Your Fitness Program

FITT Principle: Used to help determine the physical activity
you plan to take part in.

Frequency: Intensity: Type: Time:

how often? how hard? what kind? how long? HANDOUT FITT ARTICLE

More Concepts to Consider

Warm-up: activities that prepare the muscles for the work that is to

Cool Down: activities that aid muscles in purging themselves of waste

products which have accumulated during exercise

Overload: increasing workload, working harder than norm Progression: gradual increase in workload over time Specificity: particular exercises improves particular areas of fitness Individuality: everyone responds to training differently

Planning Your Fitness Program


Promotion of Physical Activity

Going Deeper: Understanding Energy Systems

Energy Systems Human Body

If the body does not create energy, we would not live. We consume food for energy, but it is not that simple. Complex chemical systems. 3 Total Energy Systems.

Energy Systems Human Body

- Phosphogen System (ATP-PC) - Glycogen-Lactic Acid System 8-10 Seconds Up to 90 Seconds

- Adenosine Phosphate Group Unlimited

The Basics: ATP & ADP

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)


Tri = 3 3 Phosphates Held Together by High Energy Bonds Highest Energy Bond = Between 2nd & 3rd Phosphate

Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)

Di = 2 2 Phosphates Held Together 1 Phosphate Released

NOTE: Adenosine Monophosphate (AMD)

Anaerobic - Phosphogen
1st System Used (8-10 seconds)
Muscles Have Very Few ATP Floating Around (3 seconds

Need to Make More ATP to Continue Exercise

Creatine Phosphate In Muscles Help

Anaerobic - Phosphogen
Phosphate Taken from Creatine Phosphate (Creatine Kinase)
Phosphate Added to ADP

ADP + Phosphate = ATP

Repeats Until ATP & Creatine Phosphate Levels are too Low

Process Repeated for 8-10 Seconds, Known As Phosphogen

System or ATP-PC System (Adenosine Triphosphate Phosphate Creatine)

Anaerobic Glycogen/Lactic Acid System

2nd System Used (Up to 90 Seconds)
Muscles Have Big Reserves of Glycogen Glycogen: Chain of Glucose Molecules Glycogen Split Into Glucose

Anaerobic Glycogen/Lactic Acid System

Glucose 2 Pyruvic Acid
Phosphates Released from Breakdown to Pyruvic Acid

Bonds to ADP to create new ATP.

Pyruvic Acid Continues to Breakdown into Lactic Complete Process Involves Several Steps


Aerobic Energy (Oxidative System)

Three Parts To Aerobic Energy
1. Glycolysis 2. The Krebs Cycle 3. Oxidative Phosphorylation

Oxidative System - Glycolysis

The Exact Process as the glycogen-lactic acid system

(one little difference).

Glycogen Glucose Phosphates & Pyruvic Acid DIFFERENCE: Pyruvic Acid actyl coenzyme A

(instead of lactic acid)

FINAL RESULT: 2 ATP & Actyl Coenzyme A (used in

the next stage)

Oxidative System Krebs Cycle

Several Chemical Reactions Acetyl Coenzyme A Carbon Dioxide, & Hydrogen

Result: 2 ATPS
PROBLEM: levels of hydrogen are too acidic for cells SOLUTION: hydrogen bonds with NAD & FAD (enzymes) and

transported to the electron transport chain.

Oxidative System Electron Transport Chain


water, preventing acid)


-------------------------------------------------------------------------TOTAL ATP (from oxidative system) 2 ATP (Glycolysis) + 2 ATP (Krebs Cycle) +34 ATP (Electron Transport Chain) = 38 ATP Total


All the energy systems use glucose to form ATP. Glucose is a carbohydrate (carb). Is it possible to burn fat? If so, how do you burn fat

through exercise?


Yes, you can burn fat! System #1 - Phosphogen System: NO System #2 - Glycogen-Lactic Acid System: NO System #3 Oxidative System a. Glycolysis: NO b. Krebs Cycle: YES c. Electron Transport Chain: YES

Burning Fat
Krebs Cycle & Electron Transport Chain
Fat must be broken down: Lipolysis Fat Glycerol & Fatty Acids Glycerol & Fatty Acids Acetyl Coenzyme A

(Beta Oxidation)
Same Path the Rest of the Way!

Fat Metabolism
The Breakdown of Fat = more Acetyl Coenzyme A than the

breakdown of Carbs. However 1. Fat contains more carbon than Carbs (requires more oxygen). 2. In high intense exercise, oxygen supply cells quick enough. Thus, carbs must be used for energy. 3. If carbs get low enough or run out, you will not be able to maintain high intensity levels.

Energy Systems Used in Sports