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Sampling is the process of selecting units from a population of interest in order to study and fairly generalize the results back to the population from which the sample was chosen.

Advantages of Sampling

Cost Greater Speed Greater Scope Greater Accuracy

Sampling Techniques
Types of Sampling Techniques

NON Probability sampling

Probability Sampling

Convenie nce

Quo ta

Purposi ve

Simp le

System atic

Stratifi ed

Clust er

Probability Sampling
Probability sampling is any method of sampling that utilizes some form ofrandom selection. Samples are chosen in such a way that each member of the population has a known though not necessarily equal chance of being included in the samples.

Advantages of Probability Sampling


avoids biases that might arise if samples were selected based on the whims of the researcher. it provides the basis for calculating the margin of error.

Non-probability Sampling
Non-probability sampling is a method in which each member of the population does not have a known chance of being included in the sample. Instead, personal judgment plays important role in the selection.


It is the basic random sampling technique where a group of subjects (a sample) is selected for study from a larger group (a population). Every experimental unit is chosen entirely by chance and each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample. E.g Lottery, generation of

Lottery Sampling
Procedures: 1. Write down the name of each member of the population on pieces of paper. 2. Place these papers in a box or a container drum. 3. The box or lottery drum must be shaken thoroughly to prevent some pieces of paper from sinking at the bottom. 4. Picked the required number of sample units from the lottery

Generating Random Numbers

This is a better and perhaps more efficient for selecting a simple random sample. Computers and even your calculators can be used to generate random digits. The randomly produced digits can be used to pick your samples. However, a complete listing of the members of the population is needed in this type of random selection.


Samples are randomly chosen following certain rules set by the researchers. Each unit in the population is identified, and each unit has an equal chance of being in the sample. This involves choosing the kth member of the population with k = N/n but there should be a

1. 2. 3.

Determine the k (period) Choose a random start List all the samples chosen in the random sampling

Example: Choosing a sample of size 84 from 500. k = N/n where N = 500 and n = 84 k = 500/84 k = 5.95 k 6


It is used when the population is too big to handle, thus dividing population (N) into homogeneous subgroups, called strata, is necessary. Samples per stratum are then randomly selected, but considerations must be given to the sizes of the random samples to be selected from the subgroups.

Procedures for SRS

Equal allocation the

sample sizes from different strata are equal. Proportional allocation the sample sizes from the different strata are proportional to the sizes of the strata.

A survey to find out if families living in a certain municipality are in favor of Charter change will be conducted. To ensure that all income groups are represented, respondents will be divided into high-income (class A), middle-income (class B) and low-income (class C). Strata # of families High-income (class A) 1,000 Middle-income (class B) 2,500 Low-income (class C) 1,500 N=5,000




Using a 5% margin of error, how many families should be include in the sample? Using proportional allocation, how many from each group should be taken as samples? Using equal allocation, how many from each group should be taken as samples?


It is sometimes called area sampling because this is usually applied when the population is large. In this technique, groups or clusters instead of individuals are randomly chosen.

It allows researcher to select those elements that are readily available (accidental sample) or those that happen to be in the place at a certain time (man-on-thestreets) in order to obtain quick results.

It is very similar to the stratified random sampling but, with quota sampling, samples are selected non-randomly according to some fixed quota. Samples are chosen based on the judgment or prior knowledge of the researcher with the objective of reaching a certain target quota.

Types of Quota Sampling

Proportional quota sampling representing the major characteristics of the population by sampling a proportional amount of each. Non-proportional quota samplingis a bit less restrictive. In this method, you specify the minimum number of sampled units you want in each category. Here, you're not concerned with having numbers that match the proportions in the population. Instead, you simply want to have enough to assure that you will be able to talk about even small


It is done through choosing the samples on the basis of the predetermined criteria set by the researchers.