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BY Rohit sharma

Purpose
To find an essentially simple, straightforward method

for deriving Plancks constant using a device that we can build. This device has to be build easily. It should be durable and feasible. The results yielded should give an accurate value for Plancks constant. This method, depending on the results, can then be used in an entry level physics lab, such as that of a high school physics lab.

Plancks Constant
1900, Max Planck proposed discrete behavior for an object of subatomic dimensions - Plancks constant h -

the natural unit of action 6.626 x 10-34 J-s, or kgm2/s It also represents angular momentum. 1905, Einstein stated that electromagnetic radiation is localized in photons with frequency f and energy: E = hf 1913, Niels Bohr extended idea to electron existing between states of discrete energy. Transitions are accompanied by absorption or emission of photons with f = E/h.

The Photoelectric Effect


1902 it was proven that the KEmax of an electron is

independent of intensity of light ray and dependent on the frequency f. 1905, Einstein formed a fundamental theory where light is composed of photons = energy quanta. Electrons are ejected (with great velocity from the atom) by the E of the photon. Each light quantum consists of an amount of E = hf

Light Emitting p-n junctions where voltage Diodes Light Emitting Diodes have
yields a flow of current. The carriers (electrons and holes) are injected across the junction producing light.

Procedure
We first build the device, approximately

taking 15 minutes. The device consists of 5 different colored LEDs, a 6 volt battery pack, a potentiometer, an on/off switch, a 330W resistor, a loose set of black and red wire, and a wire with an alligator clip.
The apparatus is turned on. The alligator clip is attached to a LED lead.

Procedure (contd)
The loose wires (black and red) are connected to a

Multimeter (which reads the voltage across the LED). Turning the room lights off, we vary the voltage (with the potentiometer) to see the max voltage before shutoff of the LED. We record the value. After, we turn the potentiometer back to maximum, and we measure the wavelength of each diode with a spectrometer.

Apparatus

Circuit Diagram

The Setup

Blue Diode

Green Diode

Orange Diode

Large Red Diode

Small Red Diode

Data
Diode Voltage (V) Blue 2.196 Green 1.536 Orange 1.507 Large Red 1.530 700 Small Red 1.287 Wavelenghts (l) 640 695 695
680

Experimental Results
From before E = hf, therefore, we used the formula

h = (e V l) /c
<h> = 5.84 x 10-34 h = (5.84 + s) x 10-34

s = [ (1/n)Sin (hi h)2]-1


s = 1.05

Being that the s was 1.05, it is evident that the errors in

Conclusion

the experiment were random rather than systematic. This goes to show that this experiment is very effective and efficient, while at the same time being very simplistic. These conclusions therefore exhibit the perfect characteristics for an entry level physics course while making it an interesting and EASY method for obtaining one of natures constants.

Questions?