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Computer Managed Instruction






Innovative methods

Innovative methods (situational)

Quick learning More learning Longer retention

CAI ---- Computer-Assisted Instruction

CAL --- Computer-Assisted Learning

CML --- Computer-Managed Learning

CMI----- Computer-Managed Instruction


CBE -----Computer-Based Education

CBI ----- Computer-Based Instruction ICAI-----Intelligent Computer-Assisted Instruction ITS ------Intelligent Tutoring System
CMC --- Computer-Mediated Communication

Computer-Based Instruction

CBI-An Umbrella Term

Computer Based Instruction

Computer Aided Instruction

Computer Managed Instruction Computer Supported Learning Resources

Computer-Aided Instruction
A computer program coded to... display prompts and instructions to a learner keep track of learners paths and reactions provide feedback in response to learners input

Computer-Managed Instruction
A computer program coded to... present and score tests keep records of trainees performance make learning recommendations based on trainees performance

Computer Supported Learning Resources

A computer program coded to help a worker perform a given task...
Help Systems Wizards

The Definition of CMI

Definition I

A system which can provide administrative support to instructors for managing instructional materials and activities.

Definition II
The use of computers and software to manage the instructional process.

Definition III (Botterell, 1982)

CMI is the answer to educations difficulties with individualisation.

The Definition of CMI

Definition IV (Radley, 1986)
Computer should be used for enabling teachers to manage a learning environment in which learning is tailored to fit each students needs and progress is based upon prescribed levels of achievement.

Definition V
The computer performs various management functions, such as testing, record keeping, prescribing, and reporting.

Computer Managed Instruction (CMI)

It can refer either to use of computers by school staff to organize school data and make instructional decisions or to activities in which the computer evaluates students test performance, guides them to appropriate instructional resources, and keeps records of their progress.

Categories of CMI
Small-scale (managing a single course at a single institution) Medium-scale (managing multiple courses at a single institution) Large-scale (managing multiple courses at multiple institutions).

Features of CMI
CMI implementation can reduce instructor work loads by automating tedious and routine functions such as grading, scheduling, and keeping track of resources. CMI may be used for either individualized or group instruction.

CMI provides a basis for evaluation of both students and instruction.

CMI helps instructors and curriculum planners determine curriculum needs. CMI can solve some problems posed by incompatible software and hardware

In CMI, students self-study and self-pace themselves through off-line lesson modules (i.e., they do not interact directly with the system while learning). This differs from computer-assisted instruction where students interact in real time with course contents and tests stored in the computer via on-line terminals.

Features of CMI
Also in CMI, the computer via its distributed terminals 1. scores criterion-referenced multiple-choice tests students take off-line, 2. interprets test results and provides the students with feedback regarding their performance, 3. advises students to learn the next or alternative lesson or to remediate mastery modules, and 4. manages student records, instructional resources, and administrative data

Function of CMI
Tracking student performance over a period of time Providing information concerning performance trends Recording individual and group performance data Scheduling training Providing support for other training management functions

The four functions of CMI

Record keeping, testing, reporting, and prescription

Function of CMI
Input and storage of student data (primarily test scores and activities completed)

Input and storage of curricular data (generally objectives, test items linked to objectives, and instructional materials or activities linked to objectives)
Retrieval and analysis of the data relating student scores and activity to the curriculum data Generation of various reports showing individual or group progress and current status

The assumption of CMI

Mastery learning Individualization Teacher as manager Note:
Individualized instruction and mastery learning require more frequent testing of students, keeping records on the educational progress and activities of individual students, and reporting of information.

Factors Inhibiting CMI in Schools

The effectiveness of a CMI system assumes and requires a shared database of all students academic data. With the development (fro microcomputers) of many CBI programs and other software useful in classrooms, also came copy protection. .

Recent factors encouraging CMI in Schools

The technology of microcomputer networking is rapidly progressing. Mass storage devices have increased in capacity while decreasing in cost. There has been a considerable decease in the use of copy protection and hence an ability to run software stored on a networked database.

Especially on Macintosh microcomputers, there is growing agreement on interfaces, data storage formats, and data interchange techniques.
The database may contain many things: CBI lessons, test-item files, objective and other curricular files, assignment (both online and offline) files, and student data files.

Uses of CMI
CMI for Instructors
Telling the student what they are expected to learn by a statement of course and unit objectives. Requiring restudy and repeated testing until the student achieve unit mastery. Criterion-referenced evaluation of accomplishments. Using lectures and demonstrations as vehicles of motivation rather than as sources of critical information.

Uses of CMI
Decision-making about appropriate instructional activities and reinforcement contingence.
Monitoring students performance and progress, supplying appropriate individual performance feedback. Engaging in individual student tutoring and guidance when learning problem arise Advising students about subject-matter related sources of information not available in the curriculum, in both individual and group sessions

Uses of CMI
Modifying, as necessary, students inappropriate attributions and perceptions about locus of responsibility for learning. Counselling and advising students about appropriate strategies for attending to new information and for constructing meaning from it. Diagnosing internal sources of students learning problems, including their use of appropriate cognitive process, learning strategies, motivational process, and self-statement. Decision-making about appropriate remediation activities, strategies, and resources that are matched to students learning needs. Modelling the practical use of new information and skills and the concept of personal responsibility through individual and group tutorial sessions.

Students role in CMI

Students are expected to be attentive and motivated. Students are expected to make learning meaningful by the appropriate use of learning strategies and skills. Students are expected to practice personal responsibility skills required for self-initiated learning, self-directed learning and self-paced learning. Students are expected to interact effectively with both their peers and their instructors. Students are expected to set appropriate course and life goals.


What is CAI ?
A self-learning technique, usually offline/online, involving interaction of the student with programmed instructional materials. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) is an interactive instructional technique whereby a computer is used to present the instructional material and monitor the learning that takes place. CAI uses a combination of text, graphics, sound and video in enhancing the learning process. CAI refers to the use of the computer as a tool to facilitate and improve instruction. CAI programs use tutorials, drill and practice, simulation, and problem solving approaches to present topics and they test the student's understanding.

Origin of CAI ?
After the development of a small commercial computer in U.S.A to process census data around 1960 Development of PLATO (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operations) - around 1964 Development of computerized tutorials in arithmetic and reading for elementary school children by Patrick Suppes of Stanford University in 1966 and in fact he was considered to

be the father of CAI.

Typical CAI provides Text or multimedia content Multiple-choice questions Problems Immediate feedback Notes on incorrect responses Summarizes students' performance

Exercises for practice

Worksheets and tests.

CAI programmes
Drill and Practice

Instructional game Tutorial Discovery Problem solving

Steps In Developing CAI

Developing CAI
1. Set Parameters

2. Estimate Costs

3. Assemble The Design Team

4. Conduct Analysis & Develop Design Plan

5. Structure & Executing

Step One: Setting Parameters

What do we have to go here? What has to happen? How will we make it happen? How much might it cost?

Step Two: Estimating Costs

Training Materials Equipment Labor Materials

Step Three: The Design Team

Project Manager

Design Team
Instructional Designer

Design Team

Design Team
Subject Manager Expert

Step Four: Analysis & Plan

Who is to be taught? What is to be taught? How shall it be taught? When is it to be taught?

Step Five: Execute Plan

Advantages of CAI
one-to-one interaction great motivator freedom to experiment with different options instantaneous response/immediate feedback to the answers elicited Self pacing - allow students to proceed at their own pace Privacy helps the shy and slow learner to learn multimedia helps to understand difficult concepts through multi sensory approach self directed learning students can decide when, where, and what to learn

Limitations of CAI
A poor substitute for actual experience

Software limitations
Restricted Text displays Learning becomes too mechanical Hardware limitations