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Muscles of the Abdominal Wall

y. green internal oblique with transversus (under)


O: lumbodorsal fascia; border of pelvic girdle I: linea alba A: compresses abdomen

yellow external oblique


O: lumbodorsal fascia; posterior ribs I: linea alba A: constricts abdomen

Muscles of the Abdominal Wall


yellow rectus abdominis
O: anterior end of pubic symphysis I: sternum and costal cartilages A: retracts rib and sternum; compresses abdomen

y. green internal oblique

Muscles of the Chest


orange pectoantibrachialis
O: manubrium I: flat tendon on fascia of forearm A: draws arm towards chest O: sternum; median ventral raphe I: humerus A: draws arm towards chest

blue pectoralis major

yellow pectoralis minor


O: sternum I: humerus A: draws arm towards chest

y. green xiphihumeralis
O: sternum I: humerus A: draws arm towards chest

Muscles of the Neck and Throat


orange sternomastoid
O: median raphe; manubrium I: superior nuchal line A: turn head; depress head on neck O: sternum I: basihyoid A: draws hyoid posteriorly O: sternum I: thyroid cartilage A: pulls larynx posteriorly

blue sternohyoid

yellow sternothyroid

y. green thyrohyoid
O: thyroid cartilage I: posterior horn of hyoid A: raises the larynx

Muscles of the Neck and Throat


yellow clavobrachialis
O: clavicle; fibers of clavotrapezius I: ulna A: flexes forearm

green masseter
O: zygomatic arch I: mandible A: elevates lower jaw

blue digastric
O: jugular and mastoid processes I: mandible A: depresses lower jaw

Muscles of the Neck and Throat


blue mylohyoid
O: mandible I: median raphe A: raises floor of mouth; brings hyoid forward

y. green geniohyoid
O: mandible near symphysis I: body of hyoid A: draws hyoid forward

Muscles of the Back and Shoulder


green latissimus dorsi
O: neural spines of last thoracic and most lumbar vertebrae; lumbodorsal fascia I: tendon on medial surface of humerus A: pulls forelimb caudally and dorsally

orange levator scapulae ventralis


O: transverse process of atlas; occipital bone I: metacromnion process A: draws scapula craniad

blue acromiotrapezius
O: neural spines of cervical and 1st thoracic vertebra I: metacromnion process, spine of scapula A: draws scapula dorsad, holds scapulae together

yellow spinotrapezius
O: neural spines of thoracic vertebra I: fascia of scapula A: draws scapula dorsad and caudad

Muscles of the Back and Shoulder


green rhomboideus capitis
O: superior nuchal line I: scapula A: draws scapula craniad, rotates scapula

orange splenius
O: middorsal line and fascia I: superior nuchal line A: raises, turns head

yellow rhomboideus

O: neural spines of vertebrae I: vertebral border of scapula A: draws scapula dorsad


O: supraspinous fossa I: greater tuberosity of humerus A: extends humerus

y. green supraspinatus blue infraspinatus


O: infraspinous fossa I: greater tuberosity of humerus A: rotates humerus

Muscles of the Back and Shoulder


yellow splenius
O: middorsal line and fascia I: superior nuchal line A: raises, turns head

y. green supraspinatus
O: supraspinous fossa I: greater tuberosity of humerus A: extends humerus

blue infraspinatus
O: infraspinous fossa I: greater tuberosity of humerus A: rotates humerus

Muscles of the Back and Shoulder


orange splenius
O: middorsal line and fascia I: superior nuchal line A: raises, turns head

yellow subscapularis
O: subscapular fossa I: lesser tuberosity of humerus A: pulls humerus medially

y. green supraspinatus
O: supraspinous fossa I: greater tuberosity of humerus A: extends humerus

blue infraspinatus
O: infraspinous fossa I: greater tuberosity of humerus A: rotates humerus

Muscles of the Back and Shoulder


orange clavodeltoid
O: clavicle; fibers of clavotrapezius I: ulna A: raises and rotates humerus

y. green acromiodeltoid
O: acromnion process I: surface of other deltoids A: raises and rotates humerus

blue spinodeltoid
O: spine of scapula I: deltoid ridge A: raises and rotates humerus

Muscles of the Back and Shoulder (Dorso-lateral View)


y. green serratus ventralis
O: slips from first 9~10 ribs; transverse process of last 5 cervical vertebrae I: scapula A: draws scapula craniad, ventrad, against thoracic wall

yellow serratus dorsalis


O: aponeurosis from medial line I: last ribs A: draws ribs forward

Muscles of the Back and Shoulder (Ventro-lateral View)


orange latissimus dorsi
O: neural spines of last thoracic, most lumbar vertebrae; lumbodorsal fascia I: tendon on medial surface of humerus A: pulls forelimb dorsad and caudad

y. green serratus ventralis


O: slips from first 9~10 ribs; transverse process of last 5 cervical vertebrae I: scapula A: draws scapula craniad, ventrad, against thoracic wall

yellow serratus dorsalis


O: aponeurosis from medial dorsal line I: last ribs A: draws ribs forwards

Muscles of the Back and Shoulder (Ventro-lateral View)


blue scalenes
O: ribs I: transverse process of cervical vertebra A: draws ribs forward; bends neck

green (external/internal) intercostals


O: posterior/anterior margin of rib I: anterior/posterior margin of posterior rib A: brings rib forward/back

Muscles of the Back and Shoulder (Dorsal View)


green multifidus spinae
O: various parts of posterior vertebrae I: neural processes of anterior vertebrae A: flexes and extends vertebral column

y. green sacrospinalis
O: various parts of posterior vertebrae I: neural processes of anterior vertebrae A: extends and flexes vertebral column

yellow iliocostalis
O: various parts of posterior vertebrae I: neural processes of anterior vertebrae A: extends and flexes back

Muscles of the Upper Arm (Dorsal View)


triceps brachii
green lateral head y. green medial head yellow long head

O: distal end of humerus I: lateral surface of ulna A: rotates ulna

orange clavobrachialis
O: clavicle; fibers of clavotrapezius I: ulna A: raises and rotates humerus

blue brachialis
O: lateral surface of humerus I: ulna A: flexes forearm

Muscles of the Forearm (Ventral View)


orange brachoradialis
O: middle of humerus I: lower end of radius A: rotates hand to supine

green extensor carpi radialis (brevis, longus)


O: humerus I: 2nd and 3rd metacarpals A: extends hand O: medial epicondyle of humerus I: radius A: rotates hand to prone O: medial epicondyle of humerus I: tendons passing through wrist ligaments A: flexes digits O: latissimus dorsi I: olecranon process A: rotates ulna

yellow pronator teres


blue palmaris longus


y. green epithrochlearis (upper arm)


Muscles of the Forearm (Dorsal View)


orange brachoradialis
O: middle of humerus I: lower end of radius A: rotates hand to supine O: humerus I: 2nd and 3rd metacarpals A: extends hand O: lateral surface of humerus I: tendons internal to wrist ligaments A: extends 3~4 digits O: lateral surface of humerus I: tendons internal to wrist ligaments A: extends 3~4 digits

green extensor carpi radialis


blue extensor digitorum communis


y. green extensor digitorum lateralis


yellow extensor carpi ulnaris

O: lateral epicondyle of humerus; semilunar notch of ulna I: proximal end of 5th metacarpal A: extends 5th digit and ulnar side of wrist

Muscles of the Thigh (Dorsal View)


orange sartorius
O: crest and ventral border of ilium I: proximal end of tibia, patella A: adducts and rotates thigh; extends shank

y. green gluteus medius


O: adjacent fascia; crest and lateral surface of ilium, transverse process of last sacral and first caudal vertebrae I: greater trochanter of femur A: abducts thigh

green gluteus maximus


O: fascia and transverse process of last sacral and first caudal vertebrae I: fascia A: abducts thigh

Muscles of the Thigh (Dorsal View)


yellow caudofemoralis
O: transverse processes of 2nd and 3rd caudal vertebrae I: patella A: abducts thigh; extends shank

l. blue tensor fascia latae


O: ilium I: fascia lata A: tightens fascia lata

blue biceps femoris


O: tuberosity of ischium I: patella, tibia; fascia of shank A: abducts thigh; flexes shank

Muscles of the Thigh (Ventral View)


orange sartorius
O: crest and ventral border of ilium I: proximal end of tibia, patella

quadriceps femoris
green vastus lateralis
O: greater trochanter and surface of femur

y. green rectus femoris


O: ilium

yellow vastus medialis


O: femur

I: patella A: extends shank

Muscles of the Thigh (Ventral View)


blue gracilis
O: ischial and pubic symphysis I: aponeurosis passing tibia A: adducts leg

l. blue adductor longus


O: pubis I: femur A: adducts thigh

orange adductor femoris


O: pubis I: femur A: adducts thigh

Muscles of the Thigh (Ventral View)


yellow semimembranosus
O: ischium I: medial epicondyle of femur, proximal end of tibia A: extends thigh

y. green semitendinosus
O: ischial tuberosity I: tibia A: flexes shank

Muscles of the Shank (Dorsal View)


green gastrocnemius
O: surface fascia, femur, fascia and tendon of plantaris I: calcaneus A: extends foot O: fibula I: calcaneus A: extends foot

y. green soleus

yellow peroneus
O: fibula I: metatarsals and digits A: extends and flexes foot
O: lateral epicondyle of femur I: tendon on each digit A: extends digits O: proximal parts of tibia and fibula I: 1st metatarsal A: flexes foot

orange extensor digitorum longus


blue tibialis anterior


Muscles of the Shank (Ventral View)


blue tibialis anterior
O: proximal parts of tibia and fibula I: 1st metatarsal A: flexes foot

yellow flexor digitorum longus


O: tibia, fibula, fascia I: phalanges A: flexes digits

orange tibialis posterior


O: tibia, fibula, fascia I: scaphoid and medial cuneiform of ankle A: extends foot

Muscles of the Shank (Ventral View)


y. green soleus
O: fibula I: calcaneus A: extends foot

l. blue plantaris
O: patella and femur I: calcaneus A: flexes digits

green gastrocnemius
O: surface fascia, femur, tendon and fascia of plantaris I: calcaneus A: extends foot