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Unit-two

Teaching learning process Teaching


Definition of teaching; Amidon and Hunter-Teaching is an interactive process, primarily involving classroom talk, which takes place b/n teacher and pupil and occurs during certain definable activities. Joyce and Well- Teaching is a process by which teacher and students create a shared envt including set of values and beliefs (a agreement about what is improvement)which in turn color their view of reality. N.L.Gage- Teaching is a form of interpersonal influence aimed at changing the b/r potential of another person. Burton-Teaching is the stimulation, guidance, direction and encouragement of learning. H.C.Morrison-Teaching is an intimate contact b/n a more mature personality and less mature one which is designed to further the education of the latter. John Brubacher- Teaching is an arrangement and manipulation of a situation in which there are gaps and obstructions which an individual will seek to overcome and from which he will learn in the course of doing so. Ned.A.Flanders-Teaching is an interaction process. Interaction means participation of both teacher and students and both are benefited by this. The interaction takes place for achieving desired objectives. Yoakm and Simpson-Teaching is means where by society trains the young in a selected envt as quickly as possible to adjust themselves to the world in which they live. Generally teaching is an interaction b/n a teacher and students under the teachers responsibility in order to bring about expected b/r changes. Teaching is instructing i.e. to cause a learner to know a subject or to cause to know how to do some thing, aimed and beyond acquisition of specific task or duty like training.
November 14, 2012

Nursing education and curriculum development handout for graduate Bsc Nursing students prepared by Minlikalew D.

Purpose of teaching

Teaching help students to; Acquire, retain and be able to use knowledge. Understand, analyze, synthesize and evaluate. Achieve skills. Develop attitudes and habits.

Teaching approach
Talk to students Talk with students Have them talk together Show students how Supervise them Provide opportunities for practice
November 14, 2012 Nursing education and curriculum development handout for graduate Bsc Nursing students prepared by Minlikalew D. 2

Principles of teaching
The educators and philosophers have emphasized certain principles of teaching which the teachers are expected to bear in mind for making there teaching effective ,efficient and inspirational. Some times these principles are classified as psychological and general principles. This classification is how ever , very arbitrary and both types overlap. A. Psychological principles of teaching 1. Principle of activity or learning by doing. 2. Principle of play-way. 3. Principle of motivation. 4. Principle of Self education. 5. Principle of Individual difference. 6. Principle of Goal setting. 7. Principle of Stimulation. 8. Principle of Association. 9. Principle of Readiness. 10. Principle of Effect. 11. Principle of Exercise on repetition. 12. Principle of Change and rest.
November 14, 2012 Nursing education and curriculum development handout for graduate Bsc Nursing students prepared by Minlikalew D. 3

13. Principle of feed-back and reinforcement. 14. Principle of training of senses. 15. Principle of group dynamics. 16. Principles of creativity. 17. Principles of correlation.

B. General principle of teaching 1. Principle of definite goals or objectives. 2. Principle of child centeredness. 3. Principle of linking with life. 4. Principle of correlation. 5. Principle of active involvement and participation of students. 6. Principle of individual deference. 7. Principle of cooperation. 8. Principle of remedial teaching. 9. Principle of creating conducive envt. 10. Principle of planning. 11. Principle of effective strategies. 12. Principle of flexibility. 13. Principle of variety. 14. Principle of activity.
November 14, 2012 Nursing education and curriculum development handout for graduate Bsc Nursing students prepared by Minlikalew D. 4

Learning

Definitions of learning; Munn-Learning is the process of being modified, more or less permanently, by what happens in the world around as, by what we do, or by what we observe. Kulkarm- learning is relatively permanent change in b/r, which occurs as e result of experience or practice. Generally learning is a process resulting in some modification, relatively permanent, of the way of thinking, feeling, doing of the learner. It includes words such as education "and training. Training usually means learning to act or behave in a certain way or do a specific jobs or skills. It usually puts less emphasis on general thinking or knowledge than education does. Education usually means gaining general theoretical knowledge and may not pay much attention to learning how to do any specific work, tasks or skills. Usually basic training in health service is a combination of theoretical, education and practical learning skills. How does learning occur? There are some hypothetical assumptions. These are; 1) Learning is personal/individual. 2) Learning occurs when there is an active mental process(active participation) 3) Learning occurs by the choice of the student. Characteristics of learning I. Learning is unitary. II. Learning is individual and social. III. Learning is self-active.
November 14, 2012 Nursing education and curriculum development handout for graduate Bsc Nursing students prepared by Minlikalew D. 5

IV. Learning is purposive. V. Learning is creative. VI. Learning is transferable. Steps in learning We can get some useful ideas about learning by examining how babies and young children learn .This is b/c that adult is similar in several important ways: 1. The first is observation. 2. Next, children try to use other methods like listening, touching, or tasting. They usually use more than one way to discover and explore. 3. When a child starts to speak, she or he may ask why and how something happens. 4. Often the child tries to imitate/copy the same action saying, let me do it myself. 5. Most of the time the child repeats the action repeatedly. 6. Many times children ask parents to observe them how they are able to perform something. Purpose of learning To acquire new knowledge, attitude, and skill. To express ones thought, feelings and attitudes. To change the b/r. (the ultimate or general purpose of learning).

November 14, 2012

Nursing education and curriculum development handout for graduate Bsc Nursing students prepared by Minlikalew D.

Principle of learning

Generally principle of learning divided in to two. These are; A. Pedagogic- which have basis on teacher centered learning. B. Mathetic- which have basis on learner centered learning. According to Kulkarni (1975) Learning(programmed) has the following principles; A student learn by being active: If he/she has to perform in a certain manner after the learning session, he/she must be allowed to perform in that manner during the learning session itself. A student learns better and is motivated to learn, if he/she is told that he/she is right after he/she takes a step in the right direction, i.e. to say, if he/she is reinforced. A student learns better if the task he/she has to learn is analyzed into sub-tasks which are sequenced properly. So that he/she can learn one step at time beginning with a step which he/she already knows. The sequence of these sub-task or the instructional events should be reproducible, so that any person other than the designer himself can verify that the sequence leads to the effect, changes the b/r of the acceptable students in the specified manner and that it does so consequently. This has to be specified in such a manner that its realization can be measured. For specific strategies in organizing situations for learning and arranging their sequence , leads are provided by various principle of cognitive process and motivation. These principle are derived from psychology of cognitive process, motivation and field theories. No strategy can be considered to be effective unless it guarantees the learning of all students for whom it is designed.
November 14, 2012 Nursing education and curriculum development handout for graduate Bsc Nursing students prepared by Minlikalew D. 7

Principles of adult learners

Adults are people with years of experience and wealth of information. Adults have established values, beliefs and opinions. Adults are people whose style and pace of learning has probably changed. Adults relate new knowledge and information previously learned information and experiences. Adults are people with bodies influenced by gravity. Adults have pride. Adults have a deep need to be self-directed. Individual difference among people increase with age. Adults tend to have a problem-centered orientation to learning. Characteristics of learner Culture Language Age Previous experience Talent Intelligence E.t.c
Nursing education and curriculum development handout for graduate Bsc Nursing students prepared by Minlikalew D. 8

November 14, 2012

Teaching-Learning process

Teaching-Learning process is as old as human beings on earth. It has been carried out not only by human beings but also by animals to teach their young ones to adjust themselves successfully with their envt. With the passage of time, it has undergone revolutionary changes. Teaching-Learning process is a means through which the teacher, the learner, the curriculum and other variables are organized in a systematic manner to attain predetermined goals and objectives. Teaching-learning has four aspects. These are; 1. Teacher 2. Student 3. Learning process 4. Learning situation

November 14, 2012

Nursing education and curriculum development handout for graduate Bsc Nursing students prepared by Minlikalew D.

Factors affecting learning The factors that influence learning may be classified in to four categories; A. Physical factors: It includes sense perception, physical health, fatigue, time of learning, food and drink, atmospheric conditions, and age. B. Psychological factors: It includes mental health, motivation and interest, success, praise and blame, rewards and punishment. C. Environmental factors: It includes working conditions and organizational setup. D. Methodology of instructions: It includes presentation and organization of material, learning by doing, and timely testing.

November 14, 2012

Nursing education and curriculum development handout for graduate Bsc Nursing students prepared by Minlikalew D.

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