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Members: Winda Amalia Marsha Yunike Senopadang


A very thin membrane, composed of lipids and protein, that surrounds the cytoplasm of a cell and controls the passage of substances into and out of the cell . The cell membrane is selectively permeable to ions and organic molecules and controls the movement of substances in and out of cells Also called plasma membrane

Cell protector Controls what enters and exits the cell to maintain an internal balance called homeostasis Limiting the cell with the outside environment The receptor of stimuli from out-side of cell

Components structure of cell membranes include phospholipids, proteins, oligosaccharides, glycolipids, and cholesterol. Have fluid mossaic model. Lipids billayers

Polar heads love water & dissolve.

Fluid Mosaic Model of the cell membrane

Non-polar tails hide from water.

Carbohydrate cell markers


Membrane transport is divided into 2 parts, there are: passive transport and active transport
Passive transport is the movement of molecules without the use of cell energy. Active Transport is the movement of molecules with the using of cell energy.

Types of Cellular Transport

Passive Transport cell doesnt use energy

1. Diffusion: Spread of molecular substances from high concentration to low concentration without the use of energy. Example: Cologne or perfume permeating the air in a room 2. Osmosis: Displacement of molecules from high to low density by diffusion through the membrane, the transfer of substances down the gradient levels.

Active Transport cell does use energy

1. Ion Pumps: Ion transport through the plasma membrane against a concentration gradient. 2. Endocytosis : Inclusion of substances in cell. Example: 3. Exocytosis : pengeluaran zat dari dalam sel-sel


Cell division is the process by which a parent cell divides into two or more daughter cells. Cell division is usually a small segment of a larger cell cycle. This type of cell division in eukaryotes is known as mitosis, and leaves the daughter cell capable of dividing again. The corresponding sort of cell division in prokaryotes is known as binary fission. In another type of cell division present only in eukaryotes, called meiosis, a cell is permanently transformed into a gamete and cannot divide again until fertilization. Right before the parent cell splits, it undergoes DNA replication.

Occur in body cells (somatic) and produce daughter cells with the same number of chromosomes with stem cells. Result of mitotic chromosomes in pairs so that so-called diploid (2n). There are four phases in the mitotic divisions are: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. The end result of this division is two daughter cells each have the nature and number of chromosomes equal to its parent.



Interphase: Where the cell prepares itself for cell division. is divided into three phases, G1 (first gap), S (synthesis), and G2 (second gap). Prephopase: characterized by the formation of a ring of microtubules and actin filaments (called preprophase band) underneath the plasma membrane around the equatorial plane of the future mitotic spindle. Prophase: The two round objects above the nucleus are the centrosomes. The chromatin has condensed. Prometaphase: The nuclear membrane has degraded, and microtubules have invaded the nuclear space. These microtubules can attach to kinetochores or they can interact with opposing microtubules. Metaphase: The chromosomes have aligned at the metaphase plate. Early anaphase: The kinetochore microtubules shorten. Telophase: The decondensing chromosomes are surrounded by nuclear membranes. Cytokinesis has already begun; the pinched area is known as the cleavage furrow. Cytokinesis is often mistakenly thought to be the final part of telophase; however, cytokinesis is a separate process that begins at the same time as telophase. Cytokinesis is technically not even a phase of mitosis, but rather a separate process,


Meiosis is a special type of cell division necessary for sexual reproduction. In animals, meiosis produces gametes (sperm and egg cells), whilst in other organisms, such as fungi, it generates spores. Meiosis occurs in eukaryotic life cycles involving sexual reproduction, consisting of the constant cyclical process of meiosis and fertilization.

2 tahap: Meiosis I dan Meiosis II Meiosis I: profase I, metafase I, anafase I, telofase I Meiosis II: profase II, metafase II, anafase II, telofase II

Difference between Mitosis and Meiosis

Mitosis Homologous chromosomes are not synapsed Tidak terjadi pertukaran genetik antara kromosom-kromosom yang homolog Dihasilkan 2 sel anakan per siklus Meiosis Kromosom homolog bersinapsis terjadi pertukaran genetik (pindah silang) antara kromosom-kromosom yang homolog Dihasilkan 4 sel anakan per siklus

Jumlah kromosom sel anakan sama Jumlah kromosom sel anakan dengan jumlah kromosom sel induk setengah jumlah kromosom sel induk Kandungan genetik sel-sel anakan identik dengan sel induk Kandungan genetik sel-sel anakan berbeda satu sama lain dan berbeda dengan sel induk