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Chapter 9

Information Systems Controls for System Reliability Part 2: Confidentiality and Privacy

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

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Learning Objectives
Identify and explain controls designed to protect the confidentiality of sensitive corporate information.
Identify and explain controls designed to protect the privacy of customers personal information. Explain how the two basic types of encryption systems work.

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

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Trust Services Framework


Security (Chapter 8)
Access to the system and its data is controlled and restricted to legitimate users.

Confidentiality (Chapter 8)
Sensitive organizational information (e.g., marketing plans, trade secrets) is protected from unauthorized disclosure.

Privacy
Personal information about customers is collected, used, disclosed, and maintained only in compliance with internal policies and external regulatory requirements and is protected from unauthorized disclosure.
Processing Integrity (Chapter 10)
Data are processed accurately, completely, in a timely manner, and only with proper authorization.

Availability (Chapter 10)


System and its information are available to meet operational and contractual obligations.
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Intellectual Property (IP)


Strategic plans
Trade secrets Cost information Legal documents Process improvements

All need to be secured

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Steps in Securing IP
Identification and Classification

Where is the information, who has access to it? Classify value of information
The process of obscuring information to make it unreadable without special knowledge, key files, or passwords. Information rights management: control who can read, write, copy , delete, or download information. Most important! Employees need to know what can or cant be read, written, copied, deleted, or downloaded

Encryption

Controlling Access

Training

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Privacy
Deals with protecting customer information vs. internal company information
Same controls
Identification and classification Encryption Access control Training

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

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Privacy Concerns
SPAM
Unsolicited e-mail that contains either advertising or offensive content CAN-SPAM (2003)
Criminal and civil penalties for spamming

Identity Theft
The unauthorized use of someones personal information for the perpetrators benefit. Companies have access to and thus must control customers personal information.

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Privacy Regulatory Acts


Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act (HITECH) Financial Services Modernization Act

Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

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Generally Accepted Privacy Principles


1. Management
Procedures and policies Assignment of responsibility

2. Notice
To customers of policies

3. Choice and Consent


Allow customers consent over information provided, stored

4. Collection
Only what is necessary and stated in policy

5. Use and Retention


Based on policy and only for as long as needed for the business
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Generally Accepted Privacy Principles


6. Access
Customers should be capable of reviewing, editing, deleting information

7. Disclosure to 3rd Parties


Based on policy and only if 3rd party has same privacy policy standard

8. Security
Protection of personal information

9. Quality
Allow customer review Information needs to be reasonably accurate

10.Monitor and Enforce


Ensure compliance with policy
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Encryption
Preventive control
Process of transforming normal content, called plaintext, into unreadable gibberish Decryption reverses this process

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Encryption Strength
Key length
Number of bits (characters) used to convert text into blocks 256 is common

Algorithm
Manner in which key and text is combined to create scrambled text

Policies concerning encryption keys


Stored securely with strong access codes

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Types of Encryption
Symmetric
One key used to both encrypt and decrypt Pro: fast Con: vulnerable

Asymmetric
Different key used to encrypt than to decrypt Pro: very secure Con: very slow

Hybrid Solution
Use symmetric for encrypting information Use asymmetric for encrypting symmetric key for decryption

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Hashing
Converts information into a hashed code of fixed length.
The code can not be converted back to the text. If any change is made to the information the hash code will change, thus enabling verification of information.

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Digital Signature
Hash of a document Using document creators key

Provides proof:
That document has not been altered Of the creator of the document

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Digital Certificate
Electronic document that contains an entitys public key
Certifies the identity of the owner of that particular public key Issued by Certificate Authority

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Virtual Private Network (VPN)


Private communication channels, often referred to as tunnels, which are accessible only to those parties possessing the appropriate encryption and decryption keys.

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