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A system of communication and consultation, either formal or informal, by which employees of an organisation are kept informed about the

affairs of the undertaking and through which they express their opinion and contribute to the management decisions

from a Latin word participare participation means sharing/taking part Sharing is a bilateral process and it has A functional aspect, and A motivational aspect Workers Participation in Management highlights both these aspects well The functional aspect is a role in deciding The motivational aspect is the natural involvement after deciding


enlarging NOT Pie splitting Gain sharing improving profitability Future sharing improving competitiveness Power sharing Placing Stockholders and Stakeholders on a even keel Self actualisation availing opportunity to contribute meaningfully


instrument for improving the efficiency and established the harmony relationship. The device for developing social education for the purpose of promoting the working community. A means for attaining industrial piece and harmony which result of the higher productivity and increase production. It also increase the self confidence among the worker.

KF Walker Model
Employee Directors Managerial Works Council Hierarchy Planning Suggestion Organizing Schemes Motivating Controlling Participative Supervision
and Job enlargement

Area of Collective Bargaining





Information Sharing Involving


Idea generating Democratic functioning


deterministic Joint decision making Partnering


are 2 groups in the worker participation the management. Manager Worker Managerial Technical or operative .

Dimension Industrial Relation HRM/HRD Compliance Psychological

contract Behaviour referent Relations Organisation and design Norms, customs and practices Low trust, pluralist, Collective Formal roles, hierarchy, Division of labour, Managerial controls


Values / Mission
High trust, unitarist, Individual Flexible roles, Flat structure/teamwork Autonomy, self-control

Organisational Commitment has 3 aspects: 1. Identification with goals & values 2. A desire to belong to the Organisation 3. A willingness to display effort on behalf of Organisation

Commitment to ORGANISATION t High / High o Common / integrated High / Low U Goals & Values N Business Partnership Habitual Resistance I O N Low / High Low / Low Co-operation Indifference


view HRM and IRM as Either Or options HRM focused on Individual Industrial Relations focused on Collective The new realism : High emphasis on both HR & IR management



Supportive Business Strategies

Top Management Commitment

Effective voice for Human Resources in

Strategy making and Governance

Staffing based on employment stabilisation Investment in training and development Contingent compensation that reinforces

cooperation, participation, and contribution

High standards of employee selection

Broad task design and teamwork

Employee involvement in problem solving Climate of cooperation and trust A great place to work

An attempt to bring statutory force The Bill proposes participation at all levels In Cold storage due to lack of will to enact It has lost relevance under Globalization PSUs have mostly complied & suffered

due to Unions extension of bargaining to WPM Deregulation is the order of the day

In 1974 JRD said, It is a thing which will come in due course, in a much bigger way than it is today. It is however, a very difficult and delicate subject which must be developed slowly, systematically and methodically, learning from practical experience and taking lessons from pitfalls of the past