Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 25

UNIT 2

Matter and Change

Chapter menu

Resources

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Chapter 2

Section 1: Matter and Change

Energy and Change


Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space Energy is the capacity to do some kind of work, such as moving an object, forming a new compound, or generating light. Energy is always involved when there is a change in matter.

Chapter menu

Resources

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Chapter 2

Section 1: Matter and Change

Changes in Matter Can Be Physical or Chemical Ice melting and water boiling are examples of physical changes.

A physical change is a change of matter that affects only the physical properties of the matter.
For example, when ice melts and turns into liquid water, you still have the same substance represented by the formula H2O. Only the physical state of the substance changed.

Chapter menu

Resources

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Chapter 2

Section 1 Energy

Changes in Matter Can Be Physical or Chemical, continued In contrast, the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen to produce water is an example of a chemical change. A chemical change is a change that occurs when one or more substances change into entirely new substances with different properties.

A chemical change occurs whenever a new substance is made.


The water, H2O, is a different substance than the hydrogen, H2, and oxygen, O2.
Chapter menu Resources

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Chapter 2

Section 1 Energy

The Law of Conservation of Mass

The law of conservation of mass states that matter can be neither created or destroyed

Chapter menu

Resources

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Chemistry and Matter: Basic Concepts Pure substance or a mixture? A sample of matter is either puremade up of only one kind of matter or it is a mixture of different kinds of matter. A substance is matter, either an element or compound, with the same fixed composition and properties.

Chapter menu

Resources

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Chemistry and Matter: Basic Concepts Pure substance or a mixture? A mixture is a combination of two or more substances in which the basic identity of each substance is not changed. Unlike pure substances, mixtures do not have specific compositions.

Chapter menu

Resources

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Chemistry and Matter: Basic Concepts Pure substance or a mixture?

A physical change is a change in matter that does not involve a change in the chemical identity of individual substances. Examples of physical changes include:
boiling,

evaporating,
dissolving,

freezing,
melting,

and crystallizing.

Chapter menu

Resources

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Chemistry and Matter: Basic Concepts Pure substance or a mixture? Physical properties are characteristics that a sample of matter exhibits without any change in its identity.

Chapter menu

Resources

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Chemistry and Matter: Basic Concepts

Topic 1

Pure substance or a mixture?

Examples of the physical properties of a chunk of matter include its:

solubility, melting point, boiling point,


color, density, electrical conductivity, and physical state (solid, liquid, or gas).
Chapter menu Resources

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Chemistry and Matter: Basic Concepts Pure substance or a mixture?

A heterogeneous mixture is one with different compositions, depending upon where you look.

The components of the mixture exist as distinct regions, often called phases.

Chapter menu

Resources

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Chemistry and Matter: Basic Concepts Pure substance or a mixture? Homogeneous mixtures are the same throughout. Another name for a homogeneous mixture is solution.

Some solutions are gases. Air, for example, is a homogeneous mixture of several gases. Some solutions are solid. Liquid solutions do not have to be liquid or contain water.

Chapter menu

Resources

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Chemistry and Matter: Basic Concepts Pure substance or a mixture? Alloys are solid solutions that contain different metals and sometimes nonmetallic substances.

Chapter menu

Resources

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Chemistry and Matter: Basic Concepts Pure substance or a mixture? Many of the solutions you encounter are aqueous solutions, for example, soda, tea, contactlens cleaner, and other clear cleaning liquids.

In addition, most of the processes of life occur in aqueous solutions.

Chapter menu

Resources

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Chemistry and Matter: Basic Concepts Pure substance or a mixture?

Chapter menu

Resources

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Chemistry and Matter: Basic Concepts

A compound is a substance that contains two or more elements chemically combined in a fixed proportion

An element is the simplest form of matter that has a unique set of properties. An element can not be broken down into simpler substances.
All the substances of the universe are either elements, compounds formed from elements, or mixtures of elements and compounds.

Chapter menu

Resources

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Chemistry and Matter: Basic Concepts Two Types of Substances Of the known elements, only about 90 occur naturally on Earth. The remainder are synthesized, usually in barely detectable amounts, in high-energy nuclear experiments.

Less than half of the 90 naturally occurring elements are abundant enough to play a significant role in the chemistry of everyday stuff.

Chapter menu

Resources

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Chemistry and Matter: Basic Concepts Organizing the Elements The periodic table organizes elements in a way that provides a wealth of chemical informationmuch more than is evident to you now. It shows the chemical symbols for the elements.

Their symbols usually correspond to their names in Latin.

Chapter menu

Resources

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Chemistry and Matter: Basic Concepts Periodic Table of the Elements

Chapter menu

Resources

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Chemistry and Matter: Basic Concepts Compounds Are More Than One Element The properties of the compound are different from the properties of the elements that compose the compound.

silver

bromine = silver bromide


Chapter menu Resources

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Chemistry and Matter: Basic Concepts Compounds Are More Than One Element More than 10 million compounds are known and the number keeps growing.

New compounds are discovered and isolated from natural chemical sources such as plants and colonies of bacteria and are synthesized in laboratories for many different uses.

Chapter menu

Resources

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Chemistry and Matter: Basic Concepts Compounds Are More Than One Element A formula is a combination of the chemical symbols that show what elements make up a compound and the number of atoms of each element.

Compound Caffeine

Formula C8H10N4O2

Chapter menu

Resources

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Chemistry and Matter: Basic Concepts Compounds Are More Than One Element Formulas provide a shorthand way of describing a submicroscopic view of a compound.

You probably already use formulas like H2O and CO2 as a way of talking about water and carbon dioxide.

Chapter menu

Resources

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Chemistry and Matter: Basic Concepts States of Matter Most matter on Earth exists in one of three physical states: solid, liquid, or gas. A fourth state of matter, called plasma, is less familiar.

Changes in state are examples of physical changes because there is no change in the chemical composition identity of the substance.

Ice can melt back to form liquid water, and steam will condense on a cool surface to form liquid water.

Chapter menu

Resources

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.

Chemistry and Matter: Basic Concepts Chemical Changes A chemical property always relates to a chemical change, the change of one or more substances into other substances.

Another term for chemical change is chemical reaction.

Chapter menu

Resources

Copyright by Holt, Rinehart and Winston. All rights reserved.