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Quality Function Deployment

What is QFD?

A method of transferring customer needs and requirements into technical specifications for new product and service development.

Brief History

Dr. Yoji Akao and Shigeru Mizuno First implemented at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Kobe Shipyard in 1972 Toyota strongly influenced adoption of QFD in North America
Between 1977-1984 achieved a 61% reduction in product development cost, a 33% reduction in product development cycle, and virtual elimination of rust related warranty problems.

Overview of Development Process

Four Stages of The Development Process:

Design Analysis Development Full Launch

Overview of Development Process (Contd)

Development strategy Idea generation and screening Service package or product architecture formulation Production feasibility Service or product not profitable Need to rethink the new offering or production processes

Detailed review of market potential and production costs

Detailed specifications Process design Marketing program design Personnel training Testing and pilot runs

Post-launch review

Full Launch
Market promotions Sales personnel briefed Distribution processes activated Old services or products withdrawn Production of new offering and ramp-up

Figure 2.2

Quality Function Deployment

Commonly Asked Questions (QFD)

Where Does QFD Fit?

Everywhere !

Quality Function Deployment

Capturing/Applying Customer Data

Capturing/Applying Customer Data How do we define a customer?

Who must be satisfied with the product in order for the product to be considered successful?"

Defining Customers

Users who are concerned with functionality. Management who is concerned with financial and strategic issues. Distribution and Purchasing Agents who are concerned with purchase transaction and availability issues. Internal workers who are concerned with how the product will affect the quality of their work life.

Capturing Customer Requirements

One on one customer interviews Focus groups In-context customer visits

Applying Customer Data

Prioritizing Requirements

Prioritizing Requirements

Importance to the Customer Our Current Product Competitor One Competitor Two Our Future Product Improvement Factor Overall Importance Percent Importance



Why Benchmark?
Establishes a definition to the level of real performance required to produce the desired level of perceived performance Develop a product or service which will excite the customer and get him/her to purchase your product


Who Should we benchmark?

The same products or services for which they captured performance perceptions A good policy is to benchmark products across the whole spectrum of performance Benchmarking all of the competitive products is not required; just check representative products


How do we capture the results?

Translate the raw benchmark data directly and associate that data with the appropriate measure Translate the raw benchmark data into the same scale as was used to capture the perceived performance ratings

Target Values

Target Values
The final goal of many QFD projects is to set the target values for the design measures.

Benchmarking values must meet or exceed target values

Defining Actions

The final result of the QFD process

To develop a comprehensive product specification Answers the question: What actions do we need to take to achieve the targets that we have set in order to satisfy our customers?"

Seven Management and Planning Tools

Affinity Diagrams Relations Diagrams Hierarchy Trees (Tree Diagram) Matrices And Tables. Process Decision Program Diagrams (PDPC) Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Blueprinting

Affinity Diagrams

Method utilized by teams to organize/gain insight into a set of qualitative information, (i.e. voiced customer requirements). Developed to discover meaningful groups of ideas within a raw list.

Affinity Diagrams (Cont)

Ishikawa recommends using the affinity diagram when facts or thoughts are uncertain and need to be organized, when pre-existing ideas or paradigms need to be overcome, when ideas need to be clarified, and when unity within a team needs to be created.

Relations Diagrams

Drawn to show all the different relationships between factors, areas, or processes. Facilitates the selection of factors that drive many of the other symptoms or factors.

Hierarchy Trees (Tree Diagram)

Illustrates the structure of interrelationships between groups of statements Built from the top down in an analytical manner. Applied to an existing set of structured information, such as that produced by building an Affinity Diagram and then used to account for flaws in the data.

Matrices And Tables

A series of related matrices and tables used as the tool for translating the voice of the customer First to design specifications Second to more detailed part characteristics Third to show the necessary process and technology characteristics Finally to show the specific operational conditions for the production phase

Process Decision Program Diagrams (PDPC)

PDPC are used to study potential failures of new processes and services

Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)

AHP uses pair wise comparisons on hierarchically organized elements to produce an accurate set of priorities.


Blueprinting is a tool used to illustrate and analyze all the processes involved in providing a service.

Different Modes of Application

Four Phase Approach

Translate customer wants into Product characteristics Translate Product characteristics into Part Characteristics Part characteristics into Product Characteristics Finally, Product into Production Controls

Different Modes of Application Four Phase Approach

Different Modes of Application

Matrix of Matrices Approach

Different Modes of Application Matrix of Matrices Approach Used to address wide variety of development issues Uses specific matrices for each specific development issue

Different Modes of Application

Concept Selection Approach

Different Modes of Application Concept Selection Approach

Was developed for implementing concurrent engineering practices

Evaluating the wants and needs from all different types of customers Integrates the principles of concept selection to help development teams to objectively and evaluate alternatives

Different Modes of Application Which Approach Should You Choose?

Depends on your individual Product Needs Each System can be modified to suit specific situations

House Of Quality

House Of Quality

A popular assembly of several deployment hierarchies and tables, including the

Demanded Quality Hierarchy Quality Characteristics Hierarchy Relationships Matrix Quality Planning Table Design Planning Table

House Of Quality (Cont)

This technique is a type of conceptual map providing means to the inter-functional planning and coordination in product improvement and development. This method brings the customer needs in the focus to design/ redesign the product and service

To Build The House Of Quality

Identify Customer Wants Identify How The Good/Service Will Satisfy The Customers Wants Planning Matrix Interrelationship matrix Technical correlation (Roof) matrix Technical priorities, benchmarks and targets

Step 1

Identify Customer Wants

A structured list of requirements derived from customer statements

Step 2

Identify How The Good/Service Will Satisfy The Customers Wants

A structured set of relevant and measurable product characteristics.

Step 3

Planning Matrix
Illustrates customer perceptions observed in market surveys Includes relative importance of customer requirements, company and competitor performance in meeting these requirements

Step 4

Interrelationship matrix
Illustrates the QFD team's perceptions of interrelationships between technical and customer requirements An appropriate scale is applied, illustrated using symbols or figures. Filling this portion of the matrix involves discussions and consensus building within the team and can be time consuming Concentrating on key relationships and minimizing the numbers of requirements are useful techniques to reduce the demands on resources

Step 5

used to identify where technical requirements support or impede each other in the product design Can highlight innovation opportunities

Step 6

Technical priorities, benchmarks and targets

Used to record the priorities assigned to technical requirements by the matrix Measures of technical performance achieved by competitive products The degree of difficulty involved in developing each requirement

The final output of the matrix is a set of target values for each technical requirement to be met by the new design, which are linked back to the demands of the customer


Benefits Of Adopting QFD

Reduced time to market Reduction in design changes Decreased design and manufacturing costs Improved quality Increased customer satisfaction