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Dr. Nicolas T. Capulong Assistant Schools Division Superintendent

I. Definition of Terms
A. DEVICE is a little method, it is teaching aid or a toll facilitate instruction. Example: Pictures, Flash cards. Etc. (Lardizabal) B. METHODS the teachers procedure; an approach to instruction that has been systematically described and that can be applicable to a number of subject areas & teachers. (Webster Dictionary) C. TECHNIQUE refers to the art or skill of performance. (Lardizabal) D. STRATEGIES a planned means to achieve change; way of giving access. (Dictionary of Education)

II. Methodology
A. Importance
A key to success in teaching It guides learning

B. Methods of Teaching & Methods of Learning Teaching and Learning are just two sides of the same coin Methods facilitate learning; there are different ways of learning, hence, there should be different methods of teaching. Methods bridge the gap between the child and subject matter.

C. Factors that Determine Methods

1. The educational objective and the aim of the lesson. 2. Nature of the subject matter or the lesson 3. The nature of the learners 4. School equipment and facilities 5. The teacher

D. Characteristics of a Good Methods

There is no single best method
1. It makes use of the principles of learning and permits the operation of these principles. 2. It utilizes the principles of learning of doing. 3. It provides for individual differences. 4. It stimulates thinking and reasoning. 5. It provides for growth and development.

III. Types of Lessons


Development Lesson
Is one is which something new is presented or developed.


Review Lesson
It aims to renew study of the same subject matter or to recall what has been taken up in the past and view this again from a different perspective or point of view.


Drill Lesson
It is for automatization of certain facts, habits, or skills. It aims to fix associations for permanency or to perfect a skill; for mastery.


Application Lesson
It gives the child a chance to express or supply what he has learned.


Supervised Study
It aims to teach children how to study a given subject in the use and mastery of the best techniques of efficient study.


Appreciation Lesson
It is designed to lead the class to understand and enjoy something.

IV. Time Tested Methods

A. Inductive Method
A discovering method
Preparation Presentation Comparison and abstraction Generalization Application


B. Deductive Method
From a generalization to specifics
Statement of the problem Generalization Inference verification


C. Type Study Method

An inductive procedure that examines one case only.

Selection of the topic Appreciation and motivation Statement of typical case/model Study of details Comparison of details with the model Generalization

D. The Problem Method

It is the purposeful activity that will remove a difficulty or perplexity through a process of reasoning.

Recognition and statements of the problem Statement of hypothesis Critical evaluation of suggested solution Verification of accepted solution


Project Method
It is a significant, practical unit of activity of a problematic nature planned and carried to completion by the student in a natural manner and involving the use of physical materials to complete the unit of experience.

Purposing Planning Exercising Evaluating


A teaching procedure dealing with firsthand experiences regarding materials or facts obtained from investigating or experimentation.

Introductory step Work period Culminating activities


Demonstration or Showing Method

A teacher does the experiment before the class


Steps (same as laboratory) Morrizon Technique

Often uses in the teaching of geography, history, government, economics

Explanation Presentation Assimilation Organization Recitation


Lecture Method
It is more of exposition

Preparation Presentation Comparison Generalization application


Discussion Procedure
Panel forum Symposium Debate Round tables conference


Special Techniques
Role playing

Identify the problems Establish the situation in which the action is to occur Establishing roles and participants Presenting the act Playing the situation Analyzing and evaluating the presentation

Presents specific situations on problems to stimulate discussion.

It involves group opinion, evaluation, planning or interaction.

It involves the use of the group process in activating

Is held for the purpose of solving or attempting to solve a problem.

V. Improved Practices
Integrative Discovery Process Mastery learning Team teaching