Mitosis – somatic/body or boring cell division!
• Two identical daughter cells, just like parent cell • Diploid, 2n, two copies of each chromosome
Interphase- Prep phase for mitosis
• G1 – make organelles and produce macromolecules
• S –DNA is decondensed form of chromatin,DNA replication
• G2 – additional growth
The 5 Mitotic Phases .Prophase
• Formation of mitotic spindles • Centrosomes are moving to opposite ends • Sister chromatids are condensed
• Nuclear envelope is broken down • Kinetochore microtubules are attached to centromeres • Non-attaching kinetochore microtubules elongate the cell
dynein d) Negative. myosin
The ____ end of the kinetochore microtubules requires _______ to pull the chromosomes toward the plasma membrane. dynein b) Postive. kinesin c) Negative. kinesin e) Actin. a) Positive.
The final steps
• Metaphase plate formed in metaphase • Anaphase – sister chromatids are separated • Telophase and Cytokinesis – cleavage using actin filaments and myosin. nuclear envelope formation
Sister chromatids would first be seen at this stage: a) G1 b) S c) Prophase d) Metaphase e) B and C
A drug is found to disrupt the function of kinesin. how would this drug affect mitosis? a) The cell cannot elongate for cell division b) Sister chromatids cannot be separated c) Cytokinesis cannot take place d) A and B e) None of the above
n.the sex cell division
• Four different daughter cells • Haploid. one copy of each chromosome • All stages are very similar to Mitosis
.Oh Meiosis .
Metaphase I and II – increases genetics variation
• Metaphase I – homologous chromosomes formed tetrads and crossing over occurs here! • Independent assortment.
Sister… homologous … what!?!?
Oh … I get it!
• Sister chromatids are the exact same thing! • Homologous chromosomes carried the different variations of the same gene! • Non-homologous chromosomes are different chromosomes!
Crossing-Over … is what?!?!
• Yes, crossing-over is chromosomal sex, where genetic materials are exchanged! So sister chromatids cannot do it together! Only do it with the same chromosome or homologous chromosome! • Must hold hand first, so tetrad are formed, and then … Chiasmata! Let’s take a closer look!
So this is how they do it!
To create more variations!
. each alleles separated into gametes independently
Wait… what is the point of these two law? .Mendel
• Law of segregation
into two different gametes
• Law of independent assortment – Two alleles will separate
– When two or more characters are inherited.
• Cross with a homozygous recessive
• To test if a phenotype is homozygous dominant or heterozygous dominant.
• Incomplete dominance • Co-dominance • Multiple Alleles
• • • •
Pleiotropy Epistasis Polygenic inheritance Environmental factors/impacts
• Let’s say R = red. So Rr would yield:
– Incomplete dominance – Co-dominance
. and r = white.
Map units … don’t add up! Offspring show different phenotype from parents!
• Karyotopic Abnormalities – having an abnormal number of chromosomes • Chromosomal aberrations – a part of a chromosome is messed up!
– Only translocation can involve two chromosomes
and your sister is also color blind.Question
Your father is color blind. What is the probability that you will have a diseased brother?
a) 0 b) 1/2 c) 1/4 d) 1/8 e) None of the above
. but you are not.
Your father has achondroplasia. but you are not. and your sister also has achondroplasia. What is the probability that you will have a diseased brother?
a) 0 b) 1/2 c) 1/4 d) 1/8 e) None of the above
what could be one explanation for this? a) Barr body b) Incomplete dominance c) Co-dominance d) Epistasis e) More than one possible answer
A female duck has a mosaic feathers.
Bio Sci Peer Tutoring FINAL Review: Bio93 Sec A+B
UNIT VI: Molecular Biology
RNA or Protein
.So what did this show/mean??
• S (Smooth) cell = DEADLY
▫ smooth slimy coat gives the bacteria protection
• R (Rough) cell = Harmless • Heat killed S cell = Harmless
▫ The cell is killed but not the DNA
• Heat killed S cell + R cell = DEADLY
▫ DNA from heat killed S cell „transforms‟ the R cell into an S cell
• KEY POINT: Showed that there exists a „transforming principle‟ but not necessarily DNA.
Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase Experiment
• Showed that DNA was the transforming agent and thus the unit of hereditary.
• Phage = a virus • SULFUR is FOUND in Protein but NOT in DNA • Phosphorous is FOUND in DNA but NOT in Protein
Rosalind Franklin. C ≡ G 3. DNA base pairing rules A=T. HELICAL structure
. DNA is LINEAR 2. Watson & Crick
• Rosalind Franklin used X-ray crystallography to get a real picture of DNA • Watson and Crick then analyzed the picture to come up with a structure that FIT the data • Basic Postulates:
Properties of DNA
• Purines = Guanine (G) and Adenine (A) • Pyrimadines = Thymine (T) and Cytosine (C) • Phophate group = 5‟ end • Sugar group = 3‟ end • DNA is anti-parallel one strand = 5‟3‟ the other = 3‟5‟ • DNA replication is SEMI-CONSERVATIVE • DNA is replicated with DNA POLYMERASE
derived from the old molecule. the second strand (red) is new Semiconservative model: Type of DNA replication in which the replicated double helix consists of one old strand. and one newly made strand
.Definition G-33 One parental is Preserved.
the most important clue to the chemical nature of the hereditary material was the:
a)incorporation of radioactive sulfur in the bacterial genome b)incorporation of radioactive phosphorus in the bacterial genome c)transformation of R cells to S cells via heat killed S cells d) accumulation of phosphorus on the surface of the bacteria
In the Hershey and Chase experiment with the bacteriophages.
its complementary strand will have the sequence:
A) B) C) D) E) 5‟-ATTGCAT-3‟ 5‟-ATGCAAT-3‟ 5‟-TAACGTA-3‟ 5‟-CGGTACG-3 None of the above
If one strand of a DNA molecule has the base sequence 5‟-ATTGCAT-3‟.
• Sequence given:
▫ 5‟-ATTGCAT-3‟ ▫ 3‟-TAACGTA-5‟
This is the complementary strand But since all options are written 5‟3‟ flip it!
Same as choice B
The Central Dogma
• DNA RNA= Transcription
• 5‟ cap • Poly A Tail • RNA Splicing
• RNA Protein = translation
Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes
• Initiation: Promoter region + transcription factors • Promoter region = DNA sequences which provide a binding site for RNA polymerase • Transcription Factors= recruit RNA pol to the promoter region
• Elongation = RNA polymerase adds RNA nucleotides until it hits a termination „spot‟
• Termination = RNA polymerase disassociates from the template DNA strand and primary transcript is released to be processed.
In order for a particular drug to directly inhibit RNA polymerase activity in animals it must have: A) Non-polar functional groups B) Nuclear import signal C) Compatible transcription factors D) Complementary sequences to the promoter E) None of the above
Promoters for eukaryotic mRNA synthesis: A) are more complex than prokaryotic promoters B) can require binding of multiple transcription factors to form a transcription complex C) have specific DNA sequences such as the "TATA" box that are recognized by proteins D) are the stretches of DNA to which RNA polymerase binds to initiate transcription E) All of the above
Everything occurs in the cytoplasm
Transcription + RNA processing in the NUCLEUS Translation in CYTOPLASM
YOU & ME!!
Capping ensures the messenger RNA's stability while it undergoes translation
▫ Mostly Guanine (G) repeats
• Poly A Tail .
▫ Adenosine (A) repeats
. the mRNA is enzymatically degraded. translation and stability of mRNA.RNA processing
• 5‟ cap added .important for the nuclear export. The tail is shortened over time and when it is short enough.
exon intron Exon
INTrons = INTerfere
+ 5‟cap + poly A Tail
“Mature” Transcript 5‟ cap
Poly A Tail
▫ Start Codon: AUG ▫ Stop Codons: UAA.
• The genetic code is degenerate. and only one amino acid.
. UGA. UAG
• The genetic code is read in triplets (codons) • It is non-overlapping • The genetic code is unambiguous
▫ Each codon specifies a particular amino acid.
▫ each amino acid can be specified by more than one codon.
• The code is nearly universal.
Which of the following is NOT a feature of eukaryotic gene expression? A) Random repeat segments at mRNA poles B) many genes are interrupted by non-gene coding DNA sequences C) RNA synthesis and protein synthesis are coupled D) mRNA is often extensively modified before translation E) Addition of a nuclear export tag to mature mRNA
tRNA has the complementary anti-codon: 3‟-UAC-5‟ • Ribosomes read mRNA in 5‟3‟ direction • E site: Exit site. amino acid chain lives/ grows here • A site: Acceptor. tRNA‟s leave • P site: Peptidyl site.Translation – important points
• tRNA molcules are the translators • Purpose??? MAKE PROTEIN. AND MORE PROTEIN!!!!! • Posses ANTI-CODONS to the CODONS found in mRNA • Thus if mRNA has codon: 5‟-AUG-3‟. PROTEIN. temporary home for tRNA‟s
What does that spell?!
• Environmental Protection Agency
prematurely cuts the amino acid chain
.Mutations – Oh Nooooo!
• Base pair substitution
Normal “Wildtype” 5‟-AUGAAGUUUGGCUAA-‟3 Mutant 5‟-AUGAAGUUUGGUUAA-‟3
▫ Silent: mutation has no effect on amino acid added b/c genetic code is DEGENERATE ▫ Missense: mutation changes one amino acid because of mutation ▫ Nonsense: mutation results in a STOP codon.
• If mutations add or remove nucleotides in anything BUT multiples of three. the mutation is a FRAMESHIFT • Wildtype:
Insert ONE or TWO Nucleotides
• Mutant (frameshift mutation):
A nonsense mutation generally results in:
A) B) C) D)
Translation of incorrect amino acids a shorter polypeptide no change in expressed protein a frameshift
B) All codons specify a specific amino acid.Question
Which of the following is NOT correct?
A) There are sixty-four different codons. C) Some codons are used for initiation or termination D) There are more codons than amino acids E) All of the above are correct
DNA Cloning In Bacteria
First Step: Isolate DNA/Gene of interest Second Step: Insert DNA into a PLASMID Third Step: Allow Bacteria to incorporate DNA and multiply Fourth Step: Observe/ Extract protein of interest synthesized
• You need palindrome sequences IE racecar
▫ Read from both directions = same word
• Restriction enzymes cut DNA at these palindrome sequences • Create Sticky Ends • Once DNA has been inserted into a plasmid. covalent bonds are reformed using DNA Ligase
• Start with one piece of DNA • Can amplify and duplicate millions and billions of copies in a few hours.
DNA is negatively charged. Allows for identification of certain Sequences of DNA.
What makes DNA NEGATIVELY Charged????
. so moves To positive end.Gel electrophoresis
Purpose: Separate DNA sequences Based on size. Smaller DNA Molecules feel less resistance in the Gel and thus move a greater distance.
2. Protein modification Protein stability/degradation. RNA stability/degradation.
.Continued (Copied from your lecture notes) KNOW THIS!
1. 6. RNA transport. 3. Gene expression can also be regulated at many other steps such as
1. 5. RNA processing. A SMALL fraction of the genes in the genome are expressed in any given cell 2. 4. RNA translation.
• Micro RNA (miRNA) – attach to MATURE mRNA and either DEGRADE or PREVENT TRANSLATION
• Transcription Factors: Tell the cell/ polymerases WHEN and WHERE transcription can occur • Enhancers: Work with transcription factors and the promoter region to stimulate transcription.
So MANY check points that can control how the gene is expressed
copies DNA sequences in the polymerase chain reaction D) Electrophoresis . C) DNA polymerase . creating sticky ends.Question
Which of the following tools of recombinant DNA technology is INCORRECTLY paired with one of its uses? A) restriction enzyme .detect if bacteria transformed
.enzyme that cuts DNA.production of DNA fragments for gene cloning B) DNA ligase .Detect DNA length E) Antibiotic resistance .
Which of the following is not part of the normal process of cloning recombinant DNA in bacteria? A) restriction enzyme digestion of cellular and plasmid DNAs B) production of recombinant DNA using DNA ligases and a mixture of digested cellular and plasmid DNAs C) separation of recombinant DNAs by electrophoresis D) transformation of bacteria by the recombinant DNA plasmids E) All of the above are valid processes
Time permitting questions…
The regions of DNA in a eukaryotic gene that encode a polypeptide product are called: A) promoters B) Exons C) Introns D) tRNA's E) Transcription factors
tRNA.mRNA.rRNA B)rRNA.mRNA C)tRNA.rRNA D)tRNA.mRNA E)rRNA. and transporting amino acid.mRNA.tRNA
.rRNA. serving as a template for translating. respectively are: A)mRNA.tRNA.Question
Three types of RNA involved in comprising the structural and functional core for protein synthesis.
The number of amino acids in the protein translated from this mRNA is: A) 999 B) 630 C) 330 D) 111 E) 112
A messenger acid is 336 nucleotides long. including the initiator and termination codons.
A key feature for the identification of plasmids containing recombinant DNA is *hint white vs blue colonies): A) weighing it B) the DNA sequencing of recombinant plasmids C) the production of restriction maps of recombinant plasmids D) introns can be moved to new locations within the gene E) the disruption of a gene on the plasmid by the inserted recombinant DNA
.com/webcontent/animations/content/meselson.mcgrawhill.Recommended Animations To Watch (copy and paste into browser each link separately)
• http://www.com/sites/0072556781/student_view0/chapter14/animation_quiz_1.com/sites/0072556781/student_view0/chapter11/animation_quiz_4.com/college/biology/animations/ch12a01.mcgrawhill.html • http://highered.html • http://highered.whfreeman.mcgraw-hill.whfreeman.html
• http://bcs.htm • http://highered.sumanasinc.com/thelifewire/content/chp14/1402001.html • http://www-class.html • http://bcs.edu/biochem/gp2/m_biology/animation/gene/gene_a3.com/olc/dl/120076/bio21.unl.
F 2-3 PM SH 149 firstname.lastname@example.org
Kevin Huang M.
My interpretation of CD's: essentially establish themselves during early divisions of cleavage (You likely don't have to know that bicoid is an example of C.I. Signals from one cell influence the fate of another cell. When zygote divides.: Common examples that you guys see cell induction could extend to the actions of organizers which secrete signals (morphogens) to influence differentiation!
A combination of ―Cytoplasmic Determinants‖ and ―Cell Induction‖
Cytoplasmic Determinants: are present in egg (maternal inheritance) before fertilization.
My interpretation of C.D.'s but it doesn't hurt for me to tell you)
Cell induction: the result of intercellular communication. different determinants yield different cell lineages.
“Dumbing it down”: positional information --> This definition likely doesn't “make sense” so think of it in terms of how morphogens work. HENCE.Pattern formation vs. Different levels of bicoid yield different cell types. D/V. Positional Information
Pattern formation: the establishment of axes A/P.How does this make sense? Well.D. Morphogens (like bicoid) yield a concentration gradient. and determines A/P polarity! Positional Information: directs pattern formation by giving positional values to cells. DIFFERENT
. P/D (determined by maternal cytoplasmic determinants present in the egg before fertilization). you know bicoid is a C.
Drosophila and ―bicoid‖
In drosophila. cytoplasmic determinants are present in the egg before fertilization. lowest at posterior) High [bicoid] = head Intermediate [bicoid] = thorax
Bicoid acts as a morphogen
. The resulting activation initiates a bicoid gradient across the embryo (highest at anterior. Fertilization results activation of the egg.
each cell becomes smaller. Thus with each successive cleavage division.Overview
Fusion of haploid egg/sperm to form a diploid zygote (influx of Ca2+ results in egg activation) Rapid cell divisions without an increase in overall size. Cell movement. mesoderm. forms germ layers (ectoderm.Embryonic Development . endoderm) ―formation of organs‖ (formation of neural tube to become future spinal cord/brain)
This essentially prevents interspecies fertilization Cortical rxn: essentially prevents polyspermy by blocking the entry of additional sperm. This results in increased protein synthesis.Fertilization
haploid sperm + haploid egg = diploid zygote Entry of sperm results in an influx of Ca2+ into the egg.
Acrosomal rxn: there are specific receptors for the sperm. (acrosomal rxn occurs before cortical rxn)
. etc. Egg is activated at this point.
Involves duplication of organelles and DNA but no overall growth!!! Form of mitosis (once again: NO GROWTH)
Morula is formed during cleavage. At the end of cleavage a blastula is created.
the blastula has a cavity within it called the blastocoel
The initial divisions of the embryo
Rapid cell divisions that proceed after fertilization.
The blastocoel shrinks and in its place another cavity called the archenteron is present Blastopore lip encircles the yolk plug Generates the 3 germ layers:
Because not a lot of background information is given to you guys—Remember that the blastocoel is characteristic of the blastula.Gastrulation
Formation of germ layers Dorsal lip invaginates into the interior of the embryo in a process called involution.
. and the archenteron is characteristic of gastrulation.
you see that endoderm is the primary cell tissue type within the gastrula! It essentially invaginates to become the gut)
. spinal cord) How to remember this: You know that the neural plate is ectoderm. skeletal.Know the 3 germ layer fates (general. and receives signals from the notochord to become FUTURE spinal cord/brain!!
Notochord (you know that the notochord is mesoderm and signals to the overlying ectoderm—neural plate) Muscular. circulatory
Gastrointestinal tract (looking at diagram on previous slide. not super specific!)
• • epithelial/outer covering like the skin (easy to remember) Central nervous system (brain.
endoderm) develop into rudiments of organs Vertebrate organogenesis: neural plate (ectoderm). notochord (mesoderm) – Mesoderm surrounding notochord → somites (which split to become body cavity)
Neural fold Neural plate
Outer layer of ectoderm
―creation of organs‖
• Germ layers (ectoderm.
.CNS Formation (Brain/Spinal Cord)
Organogenesis • Notochord (mesoderm) signals to overlying neural plate (ectoderm) which results in the inward folding of the plate---forming the neural tube (future brain/spinal cord)
Key to early embryonic segmentation • • Not a lot is told to you guys about somites What I think you should know: – – Somites = mesoderm surrounding notochord Shows segmentation
Somites HEAD Neural tube Head mesoderm Neural folds
• Organizers act sort of like ―command centers‖. Wherever they are present.limb bud pattern formation
. the organizer will cause surrounding cells to change their destiny • Ex: you graft a ―foot organizer‖ where hands normally form---you will get feet for hands!
2) apical ectodermal ridge (AER)
– Limb bud pattern formation
3) Zone of Polarizing Activity (ZPA)
. they enforce their demands‖ What do I mean by this?
Organizers to know:
1) dorsal lip of blastopore
– notochord/neural tube formation
They secrete factors (morphogens) that affect gene expression in surrounding cells
If you graft organizers of particular regions into foreign regions.
AER is overlying ectoderm
ENGRAFTMENT OF NEW ZPA YIELDS POSTERIOR IDENTITY AT NEW LOCATION (notice in pic.AER/ZPA
• ZPA secretes Sonic hedgehog which gives positional information posterior to anterior. and two ring fingers :O)
. That there are two pinkies.
What to know:
HOMEOTIC GENES: Code for ―anatomic identity‖ (ex: tells a particular segment ―you are going to be a hand‖)
ORGANIZERS: secrete signals that influence gene expression in surrounding cells
Homeotic is at the GENE level
Organizers at the CELLULAR level
.Homeotic Genes vs.
...therefore know that the neural tube folding is during organogenesis!
Blastomeres are the individual cells that make up the morula and blastula during cleavage......
Zygote (result of fertilization) Morula (during cleavage divisions) Blastula (the result of cleavage divisions) Gastrula (result of gastrulation)
Neurula (result of neuralation)----this is known in our lectures as our example of ORGANOGENESIS.Tidbits you might want to be aware of..
The questions I present here are intended to broaden your understanding and help see the ―bigger picture‖ if development and how they may apply to other topics in the class :)
Do organizers function as cytoplasmic determinants or cell induction? What kind of signals to they secrete?
―harder‖ question: How do organizers affect homeotic gene expression? Be as specific as possible! Another ―harder‖ question: How do organizers change the expression of cells in the area in which an engraftment has occured?
If I told you the # of chromosomes in a horse was 64. sometimes it does not work indefinitely.
..Although the acrosomal rxn functions to prevent interspecies fertilization. and in a mule 63---why do you think mule are sterile (cannot mate)? Random and irrelevant fact:
when I looked up these values it turned out to be these exact numbers. .) real example: a ―mule‖ (horse + donkey)
A mule is formed by the mating of a horse and a donkey.
Hint: this does not relate towards development. and in a donkey 62. . however the species were compatible enough that an embryo was viable enough to develop. think cell cycle. Ex: the ―zorse‖ (buahaha.creepy.. This means in this situation acrosomal rxn function failed.
What could be the best way to define the sort of signaling that cytoplasmic determinants and morphogens convene?
What if you could inhibit all mesoderm signaling to the ectoderm? Based off of what you know. what kind of long term effects can this have on the organism?
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
Wendy’s fun-filled introduction to Neurons
Brains are cool! Girls love brains.
Label the Neuron
Indicate where the concentration of the following ions are highest in the neuron: Na+. and anions-
. K+. Cl-.
Label the Action Potential
A: B: 1: 2: 3: 4:
Non-gated K+ Channels ______________
. Voltage-gated K+ Channels ____________ 3.Will the ion move in or out of the cell using these channels:
1. Voltage-gated Na+ Channels ___________
Label the Synapse
C: D: E: F: G: H:
d.What part of the neuron relays signals from one neuron to another neuron? a. b. c. Dendrite Axon hillock Synaptic Terminal Axon Node of Ranvier
a. A nerve A neurotransmitter An axon A dendrite White matter
. e. d.The part of the neuron that carries an impulse towards the cell body is called ________.
The difference in voltage between the inside of the cell and the outside of a cell c. The fact that neuronal cells must generate more membrane when they grow
. b. Ion gradients in excitable cells d.The membrane potential refers to:
a. The voltage inside a cell during an action potential. Graded changes in polarization e.
insulating the hillock region of the axon d. increasing the permeability of the membrane to Na+ b. allowing Cl– to enter the cell e. increasing the permeability of the membrane to K+ c. stimulating the sodium-potassium pump
.An EPSP (excitatory postsynaptic potential) facilitates depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane by: a.
determine if the neuron membrane will be hyperpolarized.For each statement. depolarized or no change.
Binding of serotonin to ligand gated K+ channels __________________ After summation of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials _______________
What is the approximate threshold? _________ Which letter(s) represent inhibitory post-synaptic potential? ________ Which letter(s) represent hyperpolarization? _______ The cell is depolarizing at letter: _________ Letter A is an example of? _________
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