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Auditory System

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Movie 3 :

Annisa Rahmah Wibowo Lintang Rahayu / 1206213391 M. Nor Dhani Nisrina A. Larasati / 1206271542 Ria Cyntia Dewi / 1206213095 Click to edit Master subtitle style

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Deskripsi Teori

Ringkasan Isi Film

Hearing and Balance

Deskripsi Film Menurut Teori Aplikasi dalam Kehidupan Seharihari Kesimpulan

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THE EAR: HEARING AND BALANCE

Structure of the Ear

The outer (external) ear consists of the auricle (pinna) and the external auditory canal, which is lined with skin bearing hairs, sebaceous glands, and ceruminous glands The middle ear, or tympanic cavity, is a small, air-filled, mucosa-lined cavity in the petrous portion of the temporal bone

It is spanned by the auditory ossicles

The inner (internal) ear has two major divisions: the bony labyrinth and the membranous labyrinth

The vestibule is the central cavity of the bony labyrinth with two membranous sacs suspended in the perilymph, the saccule and the utricle The semicircular canals project from the posterior aspect of the vestibule, each containing an equilibrium receptor region called a crista ampullaris

The spiral, snail-shaped cochlea extends from the anterior part of 11/29/12 the vestibule and contains the cochlear duct, which houses the spiral organ of Corti, the receptors for hearing

THE EAR: HEARING AND BALANCE

Physiology of Hearing

Properties of Sound

Sound is a pressure disturbance produced by a vibrating object and propagated by the molecules of the medium Frequency is the number of waves that pass a given point in a given time Amplitude, or height, of the wave reveals a sounds intensity (loudness)

Airborne sound entering the external auditory canal strikes the tympanic membrane and sets it vibrating resonance of the basilar membrane processes sound signals mechanically before

The 11/29/12

THE EAR: HEARING AND BALANCE

Physiology of Hearing

Transduction of sound stimuli occurs after the trapped stereocilia of the hair cells are deflected by localized movements of the basilar membrane Impulses generated in the cochlea pass through the spiral ganglia, along the afferent fibers of the cochlear nerve to the cochlear nuclei of the medulla, to the superior olivary nucleus, to the inferior colliculus, and finally to the auditory cortex

Auditory processing involves perception of 11/29/12 pitch, detection of loudness, and localization of

THE EAR: HEARING AND BALANCE

Homeostatic Imbalances of hearing

Deafness is any hearing loss, no matter how slight Tinnitus is a ringing or clicking sound in the ears in the absence of auditory stimuli Menieres syndrome is a labyrinth disorder that causes a person to suffer repeated attacks of vertigo, nausea, and vomiting

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THE EAR: HEARING AND BALANCE

Mechanisms of Equilibrium and Orientation

The equilibrium sense responds to various head movements and depends on input from the inner ear, vision, and information from stretch receptors of muscles and tendons The sensory receptors for static equilibrium are the maculae The receptor for dynamic equilibrium is the crista ampullaris, found in the ampulla of the semicircular canals and activated by head movement Information from the balance receptors goes directly to reflex centers in the brain stem, rather that to the cerebral cortex

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Transmission of Sound Transmission of sound:


Airborne soundexternal auditory canaltympanic membranehammer, anvil, stirrupoval windowvestubularcochlear nervecochlear nuclei in medulla superior oliveup the lateral leminiscusinferior colliculusprimary auditory cortex in the temporal lobe 11/29/12

SOUND

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FREQUENCY/AMPLITUDE

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SOUND WAVES

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AUDITORY PATHWAY

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PATHWAYS OF BALANCE AND ORIENTATION SYSTEM

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Ringkasan Isi Film

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DeskripsiTeFilm Berdasarkan Teori


Tem ori Pen pat den ran ga (pla nt T ceme ri eor Teo nsi y) e ku Fre quen (Fre ory) e cy T

Teori

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Teori frekuensi adalah teori yang menjelaskan bahwa keseluruhan membran basilar bertindak sebagai microphone, bergetar sebagai suatu keseluruhan sebagai respons terhadap suatu suara.

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Teori Tempat Pendengaran ( placement teory) adalah teori yang menyebutkan bahwa area yang berbeda dari membran basilar merespons frekuensi yang berbeda pula. Teori ini memberikan penjelasan yang baik tentang penginderaan suara-suara berfrekuensi tinggi.
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Aplikasi dalam Kehidupan Sehari-hari


Aplikasi kode M dan L di headset Fokus suara siulan, suara klakson dan suara klik Keseimbangan penggunaan tangan kiri dan kanan Korelasi antara pendengaran dan keseimbangan Kepekaan terhadap frekuensi yang berbeda berubah sesuai dengan 11/29/12

EFFECT OF GRAVITATIONAL PULL ON A MACULA RECEPTOR

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Kesimpulan

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Terimakasih

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