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to Air conditioning system

Why air conditioning ???

Becoz human feels comfort only with some specified parameter of temperature , humidity & purity of air , but outside condition is variable & doesnt fulfill the requirement.

Function of air conditioning system

to control temperature to control humidity to supply pure air

Design Conditions
No. of passengers :Ambient temperature:-

430 DBT& 33% RH / 390 DBT & 41%RH DBT

Inside condition:Present inside condition:Fresh air per passenger :Cooling capacity:-

330 DBT&/290DBT 240 DBT 2.3 lps 41 kw per unit 82 kw per car

Operating modes
Normal Operating Mode
In Normal Operating Mode A/C unit provides cooling and ventilation, switching automatically by various sub modes to fulfil specified condition.

Emergency Operating Mode

When 3Ph. Power supply is not available , ac will work in this mode & will supply fresh air only..

Smoke Mode
In this mode , system shuts off the fresh air intake and provides full recirculation of return air within the saloon.

Normal operating sub -modes

Vent mode :air is supplied inside saloon without any cooling .


Set Point + 1.0C



air is supplied with cooling (only 50% of cooling capacity is used)

250 C
SET POINT +1C Set Point + 0.5C


Set Point + 0.5C


24.50 C


Cool-2 mode:air is supplied with cooling (100% cooling capacity is used.

24.00 C

Main component
Refrigeration Equipment Air Transfer Equipment

Electrical Equipments

Main component
Condenser Coils Condenser Fans

Emergency inverter
Compressor Compartment Evaporator Compartment

Supply Air Blowers

Return Air Compartment

Refrigeration System

Refrigeration equipment

2. Condenser coil
3. Solenoid valve 4. Thermal exp. Valve 5. Evaporator coil

Refrigeration cycle
T2 2 1-2:- compression T3 Temp. 3 2 2-3 desuperheating & condensation 3-4 expansion 4 1 1 4-1 evaporation & superheating



1. Compressor
The function of the compressor is to pump the refrigerant through the system and to compress the low pressure, low temperature refrigerant into a high pressure high temperature super heated vapour, to allow condensing to occur.

Type:- Semi-Hermetic Four Cylinder

Reciprocating Suction Gas Cooled Speed:1450 rpm

Swept volume:- 82.21 m3/h

Displacement:945 ccm

2. Condenser
The function of the condenser coil is to reject the heat from refrigerant absorbed by the evaporator coil and during the compression process

Type: Copper finned, copper tube, brass frame heat exchanger

Air Flow:

2 per unit
2700 l/s (each coil)

3. T-X valve
The TX valve regulates the refrigerant flow into the evaporator coil, expanding the liquid from high pressure to low pressure, and causing a large drop in refrigerant temperature.
Refrigerant R22

Range N -40 +10 o C

Factory Superheat Max bulb temp. 100 o C 5K

Max working pressure bar


4. Evaporator coil
The prime function of the evaporator compartment is to deliver conditioned air to the main supply air duct that services the vehicle

Type: Copper finned, copper tube, brass frame heat exchanger. Quantity: Air Flow: 1 per unit. 1350 l/s

Face Velocity:

2.5 m/s
41 kW

Cooling Capacity:

5. Dual pressure controller (DPC)

Its function is to switch off the refrigeration system in case of adverse system condition . It monitors both the high and low refrigerant pressures. If the low (LP) or high (HP) pressures reach a predetermined set point, the refrigeration system will be shut down.
Range: LP 50 700 kPa HP 300 3000 kPa Set points:hp fault:- 2800 / 2500 kpa Lp fault :- 50/350 kpa

Air transfer system

Air transfer scheme

Fresh air Evaporator

Supply fan

Return air


Fresh air damper

Fresh air

Supply fan
As the name applies , it supplies the conditioned air inside saloon . It draws back 70% of return air & 30% of fresh air & moves past t
Type: Quantity: Supply Air: Motor:Two double inlet centrifugal blower wheels with double shafted motor Two (2) per unit 1350 Litres/second at 470 Pa

external static pressure

2.2 kw @1500rpm , 415 v

Condenser fan
Its function is draw the atmospheric air through condenser coil , inside

which hot refrigerant is flowing , thus

making the heat condensing the rejection &


Multi wing axial fan, 9 blades

Quantity: two (2) per unit Direction of flow: Draw through RPM Range: 0 2045 rpm

Motor:- 2.2 KW @1500rpm , 415 v

Air dampers
Fresh Air Damper Motor

Their function is to control the fresh air & return ( recirculated) air volume as per requirement.


fresh air damper

return air damper

Fresh Air Damper

Vent , Cool 1 &2 Emergency

partially opened fully

fully opened fully

Smoke vent

fully closed

fully Opened

Return Air Damper

Electrical system

Power circuit

Control circuit

Electrical cubicle



Programmable Logic Controller

INPUT OUTPUT 1. 2. 3. PLC air 4. 5. Mode of working Contactors emerging Damper opening motor pressure

2. 3.

Circuit breaker status

High low condition

Emergency condition

5. 6.

Smoke condition
Fresh return temperature

Solenoid valve on / off Unloader on / off

Compressor motor winding temperature TIMS


Fault logging

Different faults
Circuit breaker tripping i.e SFB , CBF , CMB tripping: any
circuit breaker gets trips, this fault comes.
CBF-1 or 2 tripped:CFB- 1&2 tripped :CMB tripped:system will run as usual with increased discharge pressure system will not run in cool mode system will not run in cool mode

SFB mode:-

system will not run in a any mode

High pressure(HP) fault:- when system pressure increase beyond given

safe limit for the system, then system gets tripped. If such instances occur more than 3times in a hours, then cooling system will shut down.

Low pressure fault: when system pressure decreases beyond given safe
limit for the system, cooling system will shut down.

Different faults
High ambient temperature unloading.:- in case of
RAT/FAT probe.

adverse ambient condition , to avoid overloading of cooling system , system is unloaded.

probe fault:- these faults occurs in case of failure of temperature

COTS / IOAT getting operated:- these are temperature switches ,

installed inside compressor motor winding & inverter area respectively., & gets operated when temperature exceeds the given limit.& respective system gets shutdown.