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The role of classroom Leadership

There are three leadership styles: Authoritarian Democratic Laissez-faire

Authoritarian
This type of leadership style is characterized by power, domination, pressure, and criticism. As the results of this leadership style, students will develop:
Fear of failure Low self-esteem Defeatist attitude

Democratic
This type of leadership style is characterized by sharing of responsibility and encouragement. This leadership style will produce students with high level of productivity and performance.

Laissez-faire
This type of leadership style is completely permissive, which often leads to chaos. This leadership style will causes student:
Frustration High level of stress Totally overwhelmed and lost

UTM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

THE ROLE OF CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

THE ROLE OF CLASSROOM process of the organizing MANAGEMENT and conducting thr business of the

classroom relatively free of behaviour problem. It is involves the establishment and maintenance of the classroom environment so that educational goals can be accomplished. ENVIRONMENT Central to be more effective is the ability to provide a positive social and physical environment suitable to the learning process. physical space that are needed to be more concern: A. Arrange the floor space(student desks,teachers desk,cabinets) Store classroom materials in a good order. A. Textbooks,resources books Use wall space and bulletin boards.

DISCIPLINE Should not be view as punishment. The bestway to manage classroom is on creating and applying rules to control students behaviour based on to nurturing relationship and opportunities. The newer trend more emphasis on guiding students to become more proficient at self-discipline and less dependent on external control. Good classrooms managers design the classrooms environment for optimal learning,establish and maintain rules,get students to coorperate,effectively deal with problems,and use good communication strategies.

UTM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

APPROACHES TO CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT

There are 3 approaches to classroom management: 1.The Self-Discipline Approach 2.The Instructional Approach 3.The Desist Approach

The Self-Discipline Approach


Built on the premise that students can be trusted to evaluate and change their actions,so their behavior are beneficial and appropriate to self and to the class. Teachers ability to build and establish working teacher-student relationships. There are 4 democratic classrooms management models: Reality therapy(William Glasser) Helps students take the responsibility for examining and solving their own problems. Teachers must guide their students to become more responsible individuals able to satisfy their needs in real world. Responsibility on the students,not the teacher. Classroom meetings are essential to identify the problems.

Teacher Effectivenss Training(TET)(Dr.Thomas Gordon) Stresses on the establishment of positive working relationships between teachers and students. Teachers can reduce disruptive student behavior by using clearer,less provocative communication. Teachers should identify who owns the problem when one develops in the learning environment.(teacher or student) If teacher owns the problem: I-message should be sent.(I-message tells the students how you feel about a problem situation and invites the students to change,to correct the situation. If I-message does not correct the problem,use solution through problem solving.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

6 steps of negotiation between teacher and student: Conflict is clearly determined. Possible solution are generated. Unacceptable are rejected. Remaining ideas are ranked and the best solution is selected. Determination of how to implement the selected solution so all parties are satisfied. Entails an assesment of how well the solutions works. Punishment is not recognized as viable option. If the student own the problem: Called active listening(or emphatic listening).Teacher should listen carefully and become counselor and supporter. Teacher should reflect back students point view to help them find the solution.

Inner Discipline(Barbara Coloso) Focus on helping children develop their own self-discipline by owning their mistakes,thinking through solutions,and correting their misdeeds while leaving their dignity intact. Treats kids with their respects and help them develop inner discipline that will help them to develop their ability to handle their own problems and learn their successes and mistakes. Teachers need to guide them from making any mistakes decision. Teacher fall into 3 categories: 1. Brickwall teacher-are rigid,use power and coercion to control others. 2. Jellyfish teacher-little structure,consistency,or guidance and putdowns,threats,and bribery to control students. 3. Backbone teacher-provide the support and structure necessary for students to behave creatively coorperatively,and responsibly which leads to inner discipline.

Beyond Discipline(Alfie Kohn) Approaches based on reward and punishment are only shortterm solutions to classroom problems. He contends that punishment teaches students that they will suffer when they caught misbehaving and rewards teach them how to respond positively only in order to win a prize or praise. Teacher should develops a sense of democratic classroom community that recognizes the needs and interest of both teachers and students. Classroom community will develop student to invoved in decision-making process and continually brought into making judgements,expressing opinion and working coorperatively.

The Instructional Approach


The basis of this approach is that well-planned and wellimplemented instruction will prevent most classroom problems. 2 models of classroom management: The Kounin model(Jacob Kounin) Better classroom managers because of skill in four areas: 1. Withitness-know what is going on in all parts of the classroom at all times. 2. Overlapping-handling 2 or more activities or groups at the same time. 3. Group focusing-involved all students in lesson 4. Movement management- an appropriate pace.

The Jonas Model(Frederick Jones) Wasted instructional times can be reclaimed when teachers correctly implement 4 strategies: 1. Limit setting-establishment of classroom boundaries for appropriate behaviour. 2. Good body language-physical mannerisms that tend to get students back to work,the most effectively of which are physical proximity to students,direct eye contact,body position,facial expression,and tone of voice. 3. Incentive system-to keep students on task and get them to complete their work. 4. Giving help efficiency-related to time on task.

The Desist Approach


It gives teacher full responsibilty for regulating the classroom. It gives teacher power to deal forcefully and quickly misbehaviour,they can view as power system. 2 common desist models: Assertive Discipline(Lee and Marlene Canter) Teacher have a basic right to require decent behavior in the classroom and advocates assertive discipline,which calls for assertive teacher. Assertive teacher : i. Clearly and firmly communicate needs ii. Follow up their words with appropriate actions iii.Respond to students in ways that maximize compliance but in no way violate the best interest of students. iv. Take charge in classroom in a calm yet forceful way. v. They do not tolerate improper behavior that interupts learning.

vi. Establish rules along with consequences for proper behavior and improper behavior. Behavior modification(B.F. Skinner) It is an approach that evolves the assumption that students will change their behavior to receive definite rewards. There are 4 general categories of consequences: 1. Positive reinforcement-maintianing or increasing the occurrence of a desired student behavior.rewards.(praise,grade) 2. Negative reinforcement-involves the removal of an undesired stimulus.(weekend homework,no visiting) 3. Punishment I-involves the application of some undesirable stimulus.(private reprimand,isolation,or a trip to the principal office) 4. Punishment II-removal of a desired stimulus or the withholding of an anticipated positive stimulus.(exclusion from a school film,or loss of computer timefor a week.

Questions
1. What is classroom management? 2. Stated the models of The self-Discipline Approach. 3. Stated the models of The Instructional Approach. 4. Stated the models of The Desist Approach. 5. In your opinion, did punishment is still suitable in your teaching process.Why?

Causes of Misbehavior
Students misbehavior in classroom is highly influenced by forces and pressures inside and outside of classroom. Main causes of misbehavior
Home environment The teacher Personality and health problems

Home environment
Daily interactions at home generally influence students classroom behavior. Constant family conflicts and lack of parental support develop discipline problems. Parents who put little value on education also will cause students misbehavior in classroom. Problems may develop when parents have unrealistic goal and high expectations on their children.

The teacher
Misbehavior may develop when teacher do not plan for the lesson. Lesson that is not at the students ability level. Teacher must respect students right, values, and feelings.

UTM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

ORGANIZING FOR EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT

PLANNING
Should be well prepared Overplan with interesting activities,stimulting Practice School calendar should be consulted

ESTABLISHMENT OF ROUTINES
When enter a class teacher must ask r question. Not just check attendance Starting lessons - Students learn how to behave and prepare themselves for the beginning of the lesson. Should they have their books ready on their desk or have a clear desk? help them to organise themselves

MANAGING SPACE
Should be arraged to be an environment Make a classroom more conductive to learning Make bulletin board attractive,interesting; colourful.

UTM
UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MALAYSIA

SHARING CONTROL
How to handle a first class? Teacher gives the student some priority in decision making It does not mean giving the student what they want, but giving then a space to give their mind It is called as ownership of the class

GETTING STARTED
What type of an effective class? Some senior begin with an (fun) activity (not recommended) Some effective way is by make an organization How to get a perfect organization? The key is management Some plan that can be used: - Seating slip - Books - Assignment Sheet - Class Discussion - Homework - Marking System

GETTING TO KNOW THE STUDENTS


Relationship is the main key point How to have a good relationship with the student? What we need to do for it? Here is some way to know student: - Personality - Experience - Language Facility - Academic Potential - Attitude - Home Environment - Their Interest Use filing system

ENFORCEMENT OF RULES
The reality in Malaysias School is too many rule but lack of enforcement To enforce a student we need to be fair and consistent When we facing an exception, let the student know why?

MONITORING THE CLASSROOM


What you understand with monitor? First, you must know where is the spotted area (black area) Second, always have an eye contact tackling There are two aspect need to be taking: - Ability to see all students in a time - The traffic patterns (how the desk / class is arrange) Monitoring a class is not a simple job, you must be ready for all kind of problem that may come

RESOLVING CONFLICT
What are some common conflict in our society? How to manage them? As a teacher, we need to be full of skill and always be new A teacher must show his/her power and how to use them Make sure the student know how to handle a conflict when need for it

USING PUNISHMENT
What? Why? Where? When? Who? How? When we want to giving a punishment, all above must be taken as priority There two type of punishment actually: - Psychology Punishment - Body Punishment Which one is much better for us and student? Must look on it impact and effect for