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# Problem Solving

## Strategy 1 Draw a Picture

A teacher bought some sweets. Half of the sweets were shared equally among 8 boys. The other half of the sweets were shared equally among 12 girls. a) If 2 boys and 3 girls received 12 sweets altogether, how many sweets did the teacher buy? b) How many sweets did each boy receive?

B B G G G G

B G G G

B G G G

B G G

8 boys 12 girls

12 sweets

12 sweets

12 sweets

12 sweets

## Strategy 2 Guess and Check

Mang Tasyo has more pigs than chickens. If all the animals have 24 heads and 78 legs altogether, how many chickens and how many pigs has Mang Tasyo?
Lets try some number bonds for 24

Chickens

Legs 5 x 2 = 10 7 x 2 = 14 9 x 2 = 18

Pigs

Legs 19 x 4 = 76 17 x 4 = 68 15 x 4 = 60

Total Legs
10 + 76 = 86 14 + 68 = 82 18 + 60 = 78 No No Yes

5
7 9

19
17 15

## Strategy 3 Work Backwards

There were some passengers on a bus as it left EDSA-Cubao. At EDSA-Ortigas, 15 passengers got off and 20 got on. At EDSAShaw, 9 passengers got on and none got off. Then there were 45 passengers on board. How many passengers were on the bus at EDSA-Cubao?
45 9 = 36 There were 36 passengers on board before 9 passengers got on at EDSA-Shaw.

36 20 = 16
There were 16 passengers on board before 20 got on at EDSAOrtigas 16 + 15 = 31

There were 31 passengers on board as the bus moves from Cubao to Ortigas where 15 got off

## There were 31 passengers on the bus at EDSA-Cubao

Strategy 4 Listing
When a number is divided by 3, the remainder is 1. When the same number is divided by 4, the remainder is also 1. Find the smallest number that fits the above description.
Multiples of 3 Multiples of 3 (+ 1) 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 4, 7, 10, 13, 16

Multiples of 4 Multiples of 4 (+ 1)

The number is 13

## Strategy 5 Logical Reasoning

A fruit vendor had an equal number of papayas and apples for sale. He packed the papayas equally into 10 boxes and the apples equally into 6 boxes. By midday, he had sold 6 boxes of papayas and 3 boxes of apples. "we have sold 66 fruits altogether!" exclaimed his wife. How many papayas and how many apples were left?
10 P 5P 6P+ 3A 6P+ 5P 11 P 1P 6A 3A 66 fruits 66 fruits 66 fruits Papayas 4P Apples 4 x 6 = 24

6A- 3A=3A 3A
5P

5P
5 x 6 = 30

66 11 = 6 fruits

## Try to Solve these Problems

Tony and his younger brother, Tom, were each given the same number of tokens. They played a word game. When Tom won, Tony gave him 6 tokens. When Tony won, Tom give him 4 tokens. After 10 games, they ended up with the same number of tokens that they had at the beginning. How many games did Tony win?

Anna, Bernard and Clara had different number of stamps at first. Then Anna gave Bernard 12 stamps. Bernard gave Clara 10 stamps and Clara gave Anna 4 stamps. In the end they all had 20 stamps each. How many stamps did each of them have at first?
Mrs. Smith bought 8 cakes and 12 pies for P2,900. Mrs. Brown bought 6 cakes and 9 pies. How much did Mrs. Brown spend?

## Strategy 6 Model Method

What is model drawing?
Model drawing means translating a word problem to diagrams or models

## Why use model drawing?

A picture( or a diagram) is worth thousand of words. Younger children find equations and abstract calculations difficult to understand. Model drawing helps to convert data provided into concrete visual images. It enables students to comprehend and convert problem situations into relevant mathematical expressions or number sentences and to solve them.

## Strategy 6 Model Method

Four Types of Model Method
Part-Whole Model or more types Combinations of 2 Comparison Unitary

Unit Unit
Unit Unit

Part
Unit Unit

Whole Difference

Whole

Unit

Difference

## Strategy 6 Model Method

Part-Whole Model
2-part Word Problem: Kendra had 50 stamps. After giving some of her stamps to her friend, Kendra had 18 left. How many stamps had Kendra given to her friend.
Labels
Total = 50 Amount

Solution:
50 18 = 32

Model Type

Solution

Labels

## Strategy 6 Model Method

Part-Whole Model
3-part Word Problem: There were 3,670 visitors at an art exhibition. There were 1,565 men and 1,005 women. the rest were children. How many children went to the exhibition?
Total = 3,670

1565 men

1005 women

? children

## Strategy 6 Model Method

Comparison Model
2-part Word Problem: There were 800 students in Rosario Elem School. There were 450 fewer students in Rosario Elem School than in Maybunga Elem School. How many more students were there in Maybunga Elementary School?
800 Rosario Elem School

450

## Maybunga Elem School

450

Total = ?
Solution: 800 + 450 = 1250

## Strategy 6 Model Method

Comparison Model
3-part Word Problem: 3 889 people flew to Boracay from Manila in March. In April the number of people who flew to Boracay from Manila was 1,335 more than in March. How many people went to Boracay in two months?
3,889 March April 1,335 Total = ?

## Strategy 6 Model Method

Unitary
3-part Word Problem: Mrs. Roe is three times as old as her daughter, Pam, who is twice as old as her brother, Sam. If their total age is 54 years, how old is Pam?
Sam Pam ? Mrs. Roe Solution: 9 units = 54 1 unit = 54 9 = 6 2 units = 6 x 2 = 12

Total = 54

## Strategy 6 Model Method

Unitary
Multistep Word Problem: Max had 120 stamps in a box. He gave 1/4 of them to his classmate, Ted, and put 2/3 of the remainder in a new album. The rest were extras so he gave them to his sister. What fraction of his stamps did his sister receive? How many stamps did he put in his album?
120 Solution: 4 units = 120 1 unit = 120 4 = 30 2 units = 30 x 2 = 60 Remainder Ted

His sister received of the stamps Max puts 60 stamps on his album

Sister = ?

Album = ?

## Strategy 6 Model Method

Combinations
Multistep Word Problem: A sum of money is shared among Renato, Miriam and Serafin in the ratio of 5 : 4 : 3. If Serafin received P 10,000 less than Renato, how much was the sum of money?
Renato Miriam Serafim P 10,000 Total = ? Solution: 2 units = P 10,000 1 unit = P 10,000 2 = P 5,000 12 units = P 5,000 x 12 = P 60,000

## Strategy 6 Model Method

Combinations
Multistep Word Problem: The ratio of Gloria's money to Mike's money was 8:7 at first. After Gloria spent 1/2 of her money, he had P1,500 less than Mike. a) How much money did Gloria spend? b) What was the total amount of money they had at the beginning?
spent Beginning Gloria Mike Total = ? Solution: 3 units = P 1,500 After Gloria Mike P 1,500 1 unit = P 1,500 3 = P 1,500 4 units = P 500 x 4 = P 2,000 15 units = P 500 x 15 = P 7,500

## Try to Solve these Problems

There are 20% more girls than boys in an art club. If there are 45 boys in the art club, how many girl are there?

Cindy had twice as many funfair tickets for sale as Johnson. After she sold 70 tickets and Johnson sold 20 tickets, they had the same number of tickets left. What was the total number of tickets both of them had for sale at first?

Randy had 165 story books and Shawn had 75 story books. When they each bought an equal number of new books, Randy had twice as many books as Shawn. How many new books did each of them buy?