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Sangeeta Sharma UPES

Learning Objectives
1. Concept of Leadership 2. Leadership Styles 3. Qualities of a good Leader.

Concept of leadership
Producers and Managers are important, but leaders are vital to lasting organisational success. Stephen Covey Management can get the results from the people in the organisation in two ways: a) by exercise of authority vested in it b) by winning support of the people. Out of these two, the second method is better as it has a lasting effect over the peoples motivation. The successful organisation has one major attribute that sets it apart from unsuccessful org., that is dynamic and effective leadership.

Leadership: Definition
Leadership is the process of influencing and supporting others to work enthusiastically towards achieving objectives. Nature of Leadership: 1. Leadership depends upon personal traits. 2. Leadership is situational. 3. Leaders are also followers. 4. Leadership is a pervasive function. 5. Leadership aims at goal achievement

Importance of Leadership
i. Development of individuals: The willingness, enthusiasm and confidence that leaders build in their followers for accomplishment of individual & org., goals result in their overall growth & development. ii. Building the team spirit: A leader works as captain of the team. Leaders develop team spirit amongst the followers to work collectively and coordinate their activities with org., activities and goals.

Importance of leadership
I. Motivation: Leaders motivate employees to take up jobs they are otherwise not willing to perform. They combine peoples ability with willingness and drive them to action. II. Facilitates change: Effective leaders convince members about the need and the benefits of org., change.

Difference between leadership and management

Leadership deals with vision-keeping the mission in sight-and with effectiveness and results. Management deals with establishing structure and systems to get those results. Leadership focuses on the top line. Management focuses on the bottom line Leadership inspires and motivates people to work together with a common vision and purpose. Management involves controlling and monitoring results against plans, identifying deviations, and then planning and organising to solve the problems.

Leadership styles (Habits of actions) are the patterns of behavior which a leader adopts in influencing the behavior of his followers(subordinates). Various researchers have proposed different Leadership styles. These are based on Behavioural and Situational approach of leadership.

Based on Behavioural Approach

1) Behavioural Approach:2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Power Orientation Leadership as a Continuum Likerts Management system Managerial Grid Tri- dimensional grid.

Based on Situational Approach

Situational Approach:1) Fiedlers contingency model 2) Hursey and Blanchards situational model 3) Path-goal model Power Orientation:- Based on the degree of authority which a leader uses in influencing the behavior of his subordinates. a) Autocratic Leadership b) Participative Leadership c) Free-rein Leadership.

Autocratic Leadership: Also known as authoritarian, directive or monothetic style. 1) A manager centralises decision-making power in himself. 2) He/She structures the complete situation for h/her employees and they do what they are told. 3) The Leadership may be negative as followers are uninformed, insecure and afraid. There are three categories of Autocratic Leaders: Strict Autocrat: The method used is through negative motivationcritising subordinates, imposing penalty. Benevolent Autocrat: Centralises decision-making power in him but motivation style is Positive.(effective in getting efficiency) Incompetent Autocrat: Superiors adopt this style just to hide their incompetence, bcoz in other styles they may be exposed before there subordinates. However this cannot be used for a long period of time.

1.Autocratic Techniques
Advantages It provides strong motivation & reward to a manager exercising this style. It permits very quick decisions as most of the decisions are taken by a single person. Less competent subordinates also have the scope to work in the org. as they do negligible planning, organizing and decision making. Disadvantages Employees lack motivation. Frustration, low morale and conflict develop in org. reducing the org. efficiency. There is more dependence and less individuality in the org.

2. Participative (democratic) Leaders

Participative: This style involves the leader and one or more employees in the decision-making process. However, the leader maintains the final decision making authority. Advantages: Highly motivating technique to employee as they feel elevated when their ideas and suggestions are given weight in decision making. Improved Communication(constant Interaction) Increase in job satisfaction and cooperation with management. Reduction in employees absenteeism. employees productivity is high as he is party to decision making.

Free- rein or laissez- faire means giving full freedom to subordinates. In this style, manager once determines policies, programs, and limitation for action and the entire process is left to subordinates. Group members perform everything and the managers usually maintain contacts with the outside world to bring information which the group needs. Advantages: Helps subordinates to develop independent personality. Employees potential is exploited to the fullest extent. Subordinates train their group members and motivate them to work.

3. Free-Rein or Laissez-faire leaders

Use all Three: A good leader uses all three styles.

1) Use an Authoritarian style on a new employee who is just learning the job.
2) Use Participative style with a team of workers who know their job. 3) Use Delegate style with a worker who knows more about the job than the leader.

2. Leadership as a Continuum
Meaning: In 1973, Tannenbaum and Schmidt developed a pattern of choosing leadership behaviour. In this pattern, the total area of freedom shared by manager and non-manager is refined by interaction b/w them & the forces in the environment.
no:-742. consult page

3. Linkerts Management System

Meaning:- Rensis Likert developed four styles of leadership. 1. Exploitative Autocratic system1. 2. Benevolent Autocratic system2. 3. Participative system3 4. Democratic system4. Likert has taken seven variables of different management systems motivation, communication, interactioninfluence, decision-making, goal setting, leadership control process. Consult page no:- 744.

4. Management Grid
Meaning: This approach to leadership was developed in 1960s by Robert Blake & Jane mouton. According to them, Leadership style, employee-oriented or production-oriented depends on where the leader positions himself on the managerial grid. Managerial grid is a two dimensional matrix with points ranging from 1-9 on either axis. Horizontal axis represents leaders concern for production & vertical axis represents his concern for people.

Managerial grid
Blake & Mouton have described five leadership styles:Impoverished management: leaders interference in task accomplishment is minimum. Country club management: This represents low concern for production & high concern for people. Leaders attitude is employee-oriented. Task management: Leaders are concerned more with production and less with people.There is a structured work environment where minimum attention is paid to human needs & their satisfaction. Team management: This is the most effective style of leadership where leaders show maximum concern for people and task. Organisation man management: In this leaders satisfy both production and human needs through moderate concern for production and people.

Reddin conceptualised this grid, also known as 3D management, borrowing some of the ideas from MG. THREE AXIS ARE:a) TASK-ORIENTATION(TO) characterised by P,O,C. b) RELATIONSHIP-O.(RO) characterised by mutual trust, respect for subordinates ideas, their suggestions & feelings. c) EFFECTIVENESS. When the style of a leader is appropriate to a given situation.

5.Tridimensional grid
Basic style Less effective style More effective style

Integrated Dedicated Related Seperated

Compromiser Autocrat Missionary Deserter

Executive Benevolent autocrat Developer Burecrat

Presentation Topic
Find the best and latest data you can, that describe the level of job satisfaction in a) India b) United States