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Three Factors of Sound

Psychological quantity
1) Volume

Physical quantity
1) Sound pressure level (B,dB-A)

2) Pitch

2) Frequency (Hz)
3) Spectrum structure (dB, Hz, time)

3) Timbre

Noise level
Example of generated sound Human voice (Musical instrument) (1 ~ 2m) Trumpet Shout (30cm) A young man's sneeze Grade schooler's voice Teacher's voice Ordinary voice, TV Low voice Whisper Low whisper Sound of sleeping person or eraser Low breathing sound of sleeping person Holding breath Noise level db(A) 130 110 100 90 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 -10 Example of heard sound Artificial sound Riveting (1m) Jet plane (600m) Concrete breaker (1m) Electric plane (1m) Passenger car (100km/h) Studying in classroom Office room Living room Midnight in suburban residence area Measurement limit of noise meter Night of place deep in mountain Limit of ordinary person's hearing Inside of very good soundless room Natural sound

Dog's bark (1m) Dog's bark in garden Dog's bark in neighborhood Frogs' chorus Sound of wave Song of bird or insect Hum of mosquito Sound of falling leaves Drizzle Snowing sound Hearing snow falling at midnight Windless desert

Noise level of jet plane is large but necessary

Facts obtained from noise and vibration

Roles of noise and vibration
- Engine notifies us of abnormality or trouble by noise and vibration and shows invisible troubled parts.

Be sure to catch noise and vibration.

- If you miss noise or vibration, engine will break down!
Abnormality of products Change of switch Emission of sound Switching sound Operating sound

Uncomfortable sound
Comfortable sound


2-3. Frequency analysis (Order analysis)

OA 27th 13.5th order order
Display Mode: Amplitude Trace
TMPG Running acceleration 8: Wtf.FFT1: OvPwr [3]-TM Oil pump TMPG Running acceleration 8: Wtf.FFT1: Ord 40.5 [3]-TM Oil pump TMPG Running acceleration 8: Wtf.FFT1: Ord 27 [3]-TM Oil pump TMPG Running acceleration 8: Wtf.FFT1: Ord 13.5 [3]-TM Oil pump TMPG Running acceleration 8: Wtf.FFT1: Ord 2 [3]-TM Oil pump

Acceleration amplitude level

Cursor X:1330RPM 879ms Y:-18.5 dB/1 m/s^2

13.5th order (Oil pump 1st order) Oil pump with 13.5 teeth is used 40.5th order 2nd

RPM x Order number = Hz 60

Engine 1st order means the phenomenon that occurs once in one rotation of crankshaft.

Engine speed (PPM)

What is abnormal sound?

Engine noise
Machine noise Combustion noise Valve train drive sound Auxiliary machinery sound Electronic sound Abnormal sound

Sound that must not be generated = Abnormal sound

Sound of different type mixed in engine noise

- Metallic sound, rubbing sound, beating sound, whistling sound, resonation sound, muffled sound, unclear sound, etc. which have specific components, complicated forms, and are continuous or discontinuous among noises.

Examples of abnormal sound phenomenon

Tentioner beat sound generated

500 400 300 200
(m/^2) Vibration level

There is abnormal sound

Abnormal sound not generated


500 400

There is not abnormal sound



300 200
Amplitude level (m/^2)
ENG(rpm) ENG revolution RPM)


100 0 -100


100 0 -100 -200 -300




-200 -300 -400 -500

Complete explosion

Tentioner beat sound



Complete explosion
-400 -500 0


revolution RPM) ENG ENG(rpm)

Portions where abnormal sound is generated (Examples)

Camshaft Rocker cover Water pump Exhaust leakage and abnormal sound Valve lifter Metallic beat

You are required to classify sounds into necessary ones and unnecessary ones

Sound and vibration sensory evaluation

This is the basis!

Sound and vibration judgment device (PC)

Examples of type and cause of abnormal sound

Major category
- Abnormal sound from valve train - Abnormal sound from exhaust system - Abnormal sound from air intake system - Abnormal sound from drive system

- Beat from head - Exhaust leakage sound - Flap from exhaust system - Air intake sound

- Large valve clearance - Flaw of camshaft nose top - Omission of exhaust manifold gasket - Wrong connection of H/T cord - Omission of intake manifold gasket - Large clearance in bearing metal - Sticking of tentioner

- Metallic beat - Beating of chain tentioner

Reference material

Examples of type and cause of vibration

Major category
- Large vibration

- Crashing of spark plug gap - Clogging of intake manifold - Improper adjustment of AAC - Improper adjustment of ignition timing - Narrow valve clearance (Clogging)

- Small vibration

Abnormal sound
1. Outline The abnormal sound and vibration of the engine are generated at many portions under various conditions. To find out their causes, check the following items. - You can understand abnormal sound or vibration which customer feels. - You can assume generating portion from abnormal sound or vibration. - Abnormal sound or vibration can be changed by changing engine condition. 2. Start with sensory evaluation! - Sound that is not heard cannot be analyzed or judged. - Listen to various sounds and record them.

Plan of making abnormal sound generating engine model (draft) - Executed for only 3 items

Trouble name


- Large valve clearance

- Chatter is generated from around cylinder head - Abnormal exhaust sound - Large vibration - Air suction sound - Large vibration

- Wrong connection of H/T cord - Intake manifold gasket Catching of foreign matter

- Crashing of spark plug gap - Large vibration

- This model will be manufactured by PMT.