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Definition of a Turbomachine

A turbomachine is a device in which energy is transferred either


to or from a continuously flowing fluid by the dynamic action of
one or more moving blade rows

The word turbo is a Latin origin and implies that which spins or
whirls around

A rotating blade row, a rotor or an impeller changes the
stagnation enthalpy of the fluid moving through it by either +ve or
ve work. The changes in enthalpy are linked with pressure
changes.
A pump: work is done on fluid
A turbine: work is done by fluid
The definition precludes consideration of positive displacement
machines such as piston pumps and piston steam engines.
Classification of Turbomachines
Major subdivisions

A. Power classifications (power is added or extracted from the
fluid)

Pumps are power addition machines and include liquid pumps,
fans, blowers and compressors.
Fluids are water, fuels, air, steam, refrigerants.

Turbines are power extraction devices and include windmills,
water wheels, hydroelectric turbines, automotive engine
turbochargers, gas turbines.
Fluids; gases, liquids, mixtures.
Classification of Turbomachines
B. The manner in which the fluid moves through and around a
machine

Open flow
No casing or enclosure for the rotating devices
Examples: propeller is an open flow pumping device.
Windmill is an open flow turbine

Enclosed or encased flow devices


Classification of Turbomachines
C. Flow-path or through-flow

Axial through-flow machines. The flow moves on
streamlines parallel to the axis.

Predominantly radial flow.

Mixed flow machines.
Classification of Turbomachines
Classification of Turbomachines
D. Compressibility of the fluid
Incompressible
The density is constant through the entire flow process; liquid
pumps.

Compressible; Gas flows: compressors.

E. Impulse or reaction machines
Impulse: pressure changes are absent in the flow through the rotor. In
an impulse machine, all the pressure change take place in nozzles
Ex. Pelton wheel

Reaction: pressure changes in rotor are absent


Classification of Turbomachines
Pelton wheel
Relations of Thermodynamics and fluid
mechanics
The First Law of Thermodynamics
(Conservation of Energy)



Enthalpy

The Second Law of
Thermodynamics

Reversible engines have the best
efficiency as compared to other
engines having the same conditions
of maximum and minimum
temperatures.

W ) z
2
V
h ( m Q ) z
2
V
h ( m
2
2
2
2 2 1
2
1
1 1

+ + + = + + +

W
, , , m h V z
1 1 1 1
, , , m h V z
2 2 2 2
h u pv = +
0 ds >
Relations of Thermodynamics and fluid
mechanics
Adiabatic reversible
process

Stagnation Properties
Stagnation enthalpy
Stagnation
temperature
Stagnation pressure
Stagnation Properties in
Adiabatic Process



constant pv

=
2
V
h h
2
o
+ =
p
2
o
C 2
V
T T + =
2
V
P P
2
o

+ =
) 1 /( 1 2
o
) 1 /( 2
o
2
o
) M
2
1
1 ( , ) M
2
1
1 (
p
p
, M
2
1
1
T
T


+ =


+ =

+ =
Relations of Thermodynamics and fluid
mechanics
Work and Moment of momentum
Control volume for a generalized turbomachine
Relations of Thermodynamics and fluid
mechanics
Work and Moment of momentum
For a compressor rotor running at an angular velocity ,
the rate at which the rotor does work on the fluid is
e
.
2 2 1
( ),
w w
m U C UC where U is the blade speed te te = =
For a turbine, the fluid does work on the rotor and the
sign for work is then reversed, thus, the specific work
is
Thus, the work done on the fluid per unit mass (or the
specific work ) is
.
2 2 1 1
.
( ) 0.
c
c w w
W
W U C U C
m
A = =
.
1 1 2 2
.
( ) 0.
t
t w w
W
W U C U C
m
A = =