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MODEL TEACHING METHODS FROM ISLAMIC HISTORY

THE PERIOD OF THE PIOUS CALIPHS


PREPARED BY : AZLINA BINTI MUSTAFFA MATRIC NO : G1211214 INSTRUCTOR : ASSOC. PROF. DR. ADNAN BIN ABD RASHID

1. DEVELOPMENT OF EDUCATION
1. PROPHETS MUHAMMAD (PBUH)(610-632AD) 2. SAIDINA ABU BAKAR AS-SIDDIQ (632-634AD)

3. SAIDINA UMAR AL-KHATTAB(634-644AD)


4. SAIDINA UTHMAN BIN AFFAN(644-656AD) 5. SAIDINA ALI BIN ABI TALIB(656-661AD)

1. PROPHET MUHAMMAD (SAW) EDUCATION


The prophets himself as a teacher. His encouraged his companions to acquire education and learning. Education began when the Prophet Muhammad got his first revelation. Prophet (pbuh) thought the Quran to his family. In early days in Islam, religious education began at homes. Prophet made Al-Arqam bin Abi al-Arqam as a centre house for Muslim learned and about Islam. After migrated, mosque became the instituon of education. (Masjid nabawi and Masjid Quba) There are some stages during the prophet life; -Makkah -Madinah

Methodology
Khutbah

Dialogue/ discussion

Halaqah

Question/ answer

Memorization

Mujadalah/ debate

Drawing

Practical/ demonstration

Audio / Visual

Stories

Role Model (Qudwah hasanah)

1. KHUTBAH/LECTURE
The prophet presented issues in a clear and logical lecture format. Usually, during Friday prayer. Before he death, he (pbuh) delivered his last sermon (khutbah) on the ninth of Dzulhijjah (10 years after Hijrah (migration from Makkah to Madinah) in the Uranah Valley of mount Arafah, in Makkah. His words were quite clear and concise directly to the entire humanity.

2. DIALOG/DISSCUSSION
The prophets used this popular method with his companions, and armies (Musyriqin and Ahli Kitab). Example ; Narrated on the authority of Ibn Abbas (RA), of a man who came to the prophet (Pbuh) seeking help in understanding a dream. He said, last night I saw a shadow in a dream. In my dream there was something joining the heavens and earth, and then I saw u climbing it. Afterward a second man climbed it, and then it was cut; but then joined together again. so what! said Abu Bakr (who was standing by the Messenger of Allah) turning to the Prophet(pbuh) and saying , I can explain that. The prophet (pbuh) then said, Explain it, Abu Bakr then made his explanation and asked the prophet whether he was right or wrong. The prophet (pbuh) said, your answer was partially right and partially wrong. The conversation continued with the prophet explaining what he meant.

3.HALAQAH
The Arabic word halaqah means a ring and it is used to refer to a circle of Islamic knowledge. Historically, the transmission of knowledge usually took place in the Masjids, a practice that can be traced back to the Prophet (S). This tradition was preserved by the Companions (RA) and their successors and scholars throughout the history of Islam up until the present day.

Many hadith extol the virtues of halaqahs as well as the etiquettes that should be observed. Moreover, this has been one of the main ways in which women learned about Islam from the outset. As a hadith tells us: A woman came to the Messenger of Allah (S) and said: O Messenger of Allah, the men have taken all your time; give us a day when we can come to you and you can teach us what Allah has taught you. He said, Gather together on such and such a day in such and such a place. So they gathered and the Messenger of Allah (S) came to them and taught them what Allah had taught him (Bukhari and Muslim).

4. QUESTION AND ANSWER


The Hadith of Gabriel's tells the story: "Umar ibn alKhattab (the second rightly guided caliph) reported: One day when we were with Allahs *Gods+ messenger, a man with extremely white clothing and very black hair came to us. No traces of travel were visible on him, and none of us recognized him. Sitting down before the Prophet, (peace and blessings be upon him) leaning his knees against his, and placing his hands on his thighs, the stranger said, 'Tell me, Muhammad, about Islam.'

The Prophet replied, 'Islam means that you should bear witness that there is no god but God and that Muhammad is Allahs messenger, that you should perform the ritual prayer, pay the zakat, fast during Ramadan, and make the pilgrimage to the Kaaba at Mekkah if you are able to go there.' The man said, 'You have spoken the truth.' (We were amazed at this mans questioning the Prophet and then declaring that he had spoken the truth).

The stranger spoke a second time, saying, 'Now tell me about faith.' The Prophet replied, 'Faith means that you have faith in Allah, His angels, His books, His messengers and the Last Day, and that you have faith in fate as it is measured out, both its good and evil aspects.' Remarking that the Prophet again had spoken the truth, the stranger then said, 'Now tell me about virtue.' The Prophet replied, 'Virtue - doing what is beautiful means that you should worship Allah as if you see Him, for even if you do not see Him, He sees you.'

Yet again the man said, 'Tell me about the Hour (that is, the coming of the Day of Judgment).' The Prophet replied, 'About that he who is questioned knows no more than the questioner.' The stranger said, 'Well, then tell me about its signs.' The Prophet replied, 'The slave girl will give birth to her mistress, and you will see the barefoot, the naked, the destitute, and the shepherds vying with each other in building.' At that, the stranger went away. After I had waited for a while, the Prophet spoke to me: 'Do you know who the questioner was, Umar?' I replied, 'Allah and His messenger know best.' The Prophet said, 'He was Jibril [Gabriel]. He came to teach you your religion.'"

5.MEMORIZATION
How the Prophet received the Revelation This is Allah teaching to His Messenger that how to receive the revelation from the angel. For verily, he (the Prophet) was rushing in his attempts to grasp the revelation and he would be reciting the revelation with the angel while he was reciting it. Therefore, Allah commanded him that when the angel brings some revelation to him he should just listen. Allah would make sure to collect it in his chest, and He would make it easy for him to recite it in the same way that it was revealed to him. Allah would explain it, interpret it and clarify it for him. So the first phase was gathering it in his chest, the second phase was recitation and the third phase was its explanation and clarification of its meaning

Thus, Allah says,

Move not your tongue concerning to make haste therewith. meaning, with the Qur'an.

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This is as Allah says,

And be not in haste with the Qur'an before its revelation is completed to you, and say: "My Lord! Increase me in knowledge.'' (20:114). Then Allah says,

)17(

It is for Us to collect it, meaning, `in your chest.' and that it be recited. meaning, `that you recite it.'

And when We have recited it to you, meaning, `when the angel has recited it to you from Allah, then follow its recitation. meaning, `listen to it then recite it as he taught you to recite it.' )19(

)18(

Then it is for Us to make it clear.

6. DEBATE
Using a debate is a positive technique to depends some criticize about Islam. For example, debate between Prophet Ibrahim with king Namrud about the creation of universe.
He also argued with a skeptic, who claimed to be god (according to what the commentators said, he was Namrud, the King of Babylon):

.
When Ibrahim said (to the disbeliever, who disputed with him): My Lord (Allah) is He, who gives life and causes death. He (the disbeliever) said: I give life and cause death. Ibrahim said: Verily, Allah causes the sun to rise from the East, then you cause it to rise from the West. So, the disbeliever was utterly defeated. And Allah guides not the people, who are Zalimun (wrong-doers, etc.). [Surah al-Baqarah (2): 258]

7. DRAWING
An example of the prophets graphic method is given by Abdullah bin Alwan in his book the education of children in Islam. Jabir a companion of the prophet (pbuh) reported in a hadith, we were sitting in front of the prophet (pbuh) when he mark a line on sand, and said, this is the way of Allah (God) and then drew another two lines on his right middle line he recite the verses of Quran :


And, [moreover], this is My path, which is straight, so follow it; and do not follow [other] ways, for you will be separated from His way. This has He instructed you that you may become righteous.

The straight path of truth


Ways of evil
Straight path of truth

8.PRACTICAL AND DEMONSTRATION


The prophet (pbuh) often illustrated his stories with reference to living examples, and would use his hands in gesticulation to attract the interest of those who are watching him. Example; 1. Suid tells how he passed a young man who was flaying a sheep clumsily, the prophet (pbuh) stopped and told him to stand back as he would show him how to do it. He placed his own hands between the skin and the meat and pushed till his hands reached the bottom of the shoulders.

2. Alwan has describe how the prophet (pbuh) perfomed the wudu in front of a group of people, asking, who does wudu like me? before praying to raakaats.
He surely did this to show people how they should pray. On another occasion he led the people in prayers while standing on the mimbar ( the stand from which the imam delivers sermons), and when he had finished, he turned to the people and said, my people, I did this so that you can follow me and so that you can see how I pray.

9.AUDIO/VISUAL
As the greatest miracle of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) that He performed for the dwellers of the earth is His splitting the moon into two, His greatest miracle performed for the dwellers of the heaven is Ascension. According to the common points of the narrations reported in Bukhari and Muslim, the Ascension miracle occurred in this way: One night, while Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was in Hijr (Hatim), the name of an area just next to Kaaba, in some narrations while he was sleeping and in some others while he was in a situation between sleeping and being awake, Gabriel (as) came, split his chest and after washing it with zam-zam water He filled it with faith and wisdom and closed back.

He helped Prophet Muhammad mount on the ride called Buraq that could cover an incredibly vast distance with one leap. They travelled over than 1200km in less no time and reached the Bait-ul Maqdis(Masjid al-Aqsa in Jerusalem) where Prophet Muhammad performed two rakaahs solah leading the previous prophets. Then, Gabriel brought two cups; milk in one and wine in the other. Upon Prophets choosing the milk cup, Gabriel said: You chose the fitrah (creation). After that, our blessed Prophet (pbuh) commenced the next stage of his miraculous Night Journey with the accompany of Gabriel (as). Gabriel took Him from Baitul Maqdis and ascended to the heaven.

10. STORIES
The method of using stories can be both true or fictional in all culture. We find lots of stories narrated by the Prophet (pbuh). Example; there are a lot of story about the prophets and ancient people. (we have sent) some messengers we have already told you about , and some others Messengers we did not tell you about, and Allah has spoken to Musa verbally. (al-Annisa 164)

2. SAIDINA ABU BAKAR AS-SIDDIQ


Method : Khutbah / Lecture
Example :
1. The Riddah war were a series of military campaigns lunched by him against rebel Arabian tribes during 632-633AD. There are some rules for military war; -Do not defected from the right path -You are not allowed to damage the funeral -Do not kill children, women or those who are to old. -Do not damage the plants tree or burn it, especially fruit tree -Do not kill the animals, unless to be used for meat. -When you meet people who live as monk; let them.

2. Writing method. After succesfully reduce the riddah, people who memorized the Quran was killed. He began to conduct activities for regrouping the verses of Quran. Example; Zaid bin Thabit accepted the task gather the verses from parchments, scapula, leafstalks of date palms and from the memories men (who knew it by heart). 3. Role model (Qudwah hasanah), continuation of the education of Rasulullah (saw).

3. SAIDINA UMAR AL-KHATTAB


Practical and demonstration method. Emphasized on primary education; Caliphs Umar said; teach your children to swim and throw darts, change them that they must be able to mount a hourse securely and make them recite appropriate verses.

4. SAIDINA UTHMAN BIN AFFAN


Saidina Uthman collected Quran Rusm Uthmani. Hadith not compile yet, and the dissemination of the hadith by listening and memorizing from their teachers. (memorization method). The duty of teachings imposed to the people at that time. The government do not employ the teacher. The education object at that time is consist of :

1.Adult & old people who convert to Islam

Lecture, memorization & practice

2.Children and parents who already converted Memorization and practice and new converted 3.Adult and old people Lecture, discussion, question & answer in who already converted memorization Islam

4. People who are seeking for the knowledge

Lecture, memorization, question & answer, discussion

5. SAIDINA ALI BIN ABI TALIB


1. Ali used advise method to teach his Son Hassan and Hussein for example; The last will of saidina Ali (r.a).. 2. Informal education through Word of wisdom

CONCLUSION
We have discussed the Prophet and his companion practice as a teacher. His teaching reflected in the Sunnah is second only to the Quran in important in the Islamic tradition, so that the Prophets is the authority in all Islamic Education. All the methods help teachers in the properly and systematic way to obtain their aim, objective and goal of education.

REFERENCES
Ahmad Mohd Salleh, ,(2011) Kurikulum, Metodologi dan Pedagogi Pengajian Islam, Edisi 2, oxford Fajar. Ustaz Abdul Raof Dalip,(2007) Pendidikan Islam Zaman Khulafa Ar-Rasyidin, Progressive Publishing House Snd Bhd. Dr. S.M. Ziauddin Alavi (1998).Muslim Educational Thought in Middle Ages. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Distributor. (Chapter 1). Ibrahim A.Al-Sadan (1999). The pedagogy of the prophet. The Islamic academy, Cambridge, U.K

QUESTION & ANSWER

THANK YOU.