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# Bubble Point and Dew Point Calculations

In the last lecture we discussed: An isothermal flash separations The derivation and solution of the Rachford Rice equation Newtons iterative procedure to solve for the roots of the RR equation A numerical example to demonstrate this approach.

This lecture will cover: An example of using the Rachford Rice Procedure with a simple spreadsheet Bubble point and Dew Point temperature and pressure calculations An example of a dew point temperature calculation

## Multicomponent Flash Calculations

For this system there are 3C+10 variables: F, V, L, {T, P}3, Q, {xi , yi ,zi}C and C+5 degrees of freedom. We specify the C+3 variables F, zi, TF, PF and two additional variables
Flash Drum
Liquid Feed Vapor out

F, zi, TF, PF Q

V, yi, TV, PV
Liquid out

L, xi, TL, PL Common Specifications: TV,PV Isothermal Flash V/F=0, PL Bubble-Point Temperature V/F=1, PV Dew-Point Temperature V/F=0, TL Bubble-Point Pressure V/F=1, TV Dew-Point Pressure Q=0, PV Adiabatic Flash Q, PV Nonadiabatic flash V/F, PV Percent Vaporization Flash
Lecture 6: Bubble and Dew Point

Last lecture

## Isothermal Flash Calculations

If we specify F, zi, TF, PF and TV ,PV then we apply the Rachford-Rice procedure:
Flash Drum Liquid Feed Vapor out

F, zi, TF, PF Q

V, yi, TV, PV
Liquid out

TL TV PL PV

## Solve Rachford-Rice for V/F. Determine V

Xi
V F

Step 4:

Steps 5 and 6:

Zi Ki 1

Yi

Ki Zi Ki 1

Step 7:
Step 8:
Lecture 6: Bubble and Dew Point

Determine L Determine Q

L F F

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## Bubble Point Pressure Calculations

For a bubble point pressure calculation we specify F, zi, TF, PF, TL and that we are at the bubble point.
Flash Drum
Liquid Feed Vapor out

F, zi, TF, PF Q

## V=0, yi, TV, PV

Liquid out

L, xi, TL, PL At the bubble point there is equilibrium between the vapor and liquid phases, but the system is completely liquid and thus the vapor fraction is zero.

f ( )
f (0) Zi K i 1 0
i

Zi K i 1 0 i K i 1

Zi Ki 1
i
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## Bubble Point Temperature Calculations

For a bubble point temperature calculation we specify F, zi, TF, PF, PL and that we are at the bubble point.
Flash Drum
Liquid Feed Vapor out

F, zi, TF, PF Q

## V=0, yi, TV, PV

Liquid out

L, xi, TL, PL At the bubble point there is equilibrium between the vapor and liquid phases, but the system is completely liquid and thus the vapor fraction is zero.

f ( )
f (0) Zi K i 1 0
i

Zi K i 1 0 i K i 1

Zi Ki 1
i
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## Dew Point Temperature Calculations

For a Dew Point Temperature calculation we specify F, zi, TF, PF, PV and that we are at the dew point.
Flash Drum
Liquid Feed Vapor out

F, zi, TF, PF Q

V, yi, TV, PV
Liquid out

L=0, xi, TL, PL At the dew point there is equilibrium between the vapor and liquid phases, but the system is completely vapor and thus the vapor fraction is one.

f ( ) Z K 1 f (1) i i 0 Ki i
Lecture 6: Bubble and Dew Point

Zi K i 1 0 i K i 1

Zi 1 i Ki
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## Dew Point Pressure Calculations

For a Dew Point Pressure calculation we specify F, zi, TF, PF, PV and that we are at the dew point.
Flash Drum
Liquid Feed Vapor out

F, zi, TF, PF Q

V, yi, TV, PV
Liquid out

L=0, xi, TL, PL At the dew point there is equilibrium between the vapor and liquid phases, but the system is completely vapor and thus the vapor fraction is one.

f ( ) Z K 1 f (1) i i 0 Ki i
Lecture 6: Bubble and Dew Point

Zi K i 1 0 i K i 1

Zi 1 i Ki
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## Bubble Point and Dew Point Calculations

To solve the bubble point and dew point problems we must find the unspecified temperature or pressure which satisfies the Rachford Rice expressions. Bubble Point

Zi Ki 1
i

Z i 1
i Ki

Dew Point

Bubble Point or Dew Point Temperature Procedure: Step 1: Guess a temperature. Step 2: Use the given product pressure and guess temperature to determine the K-values from the DePriester chart. Step 3: Calculate the Rachford Rice expression appropriate to the equilibrium condition. Step 4: Guess a new higher temperature if K values must be higher. Otherwise, guess a lower temperature. Step 5: Repeat Steps 3 and 4 until the Rachford Rice equation is satisfied. Bubble Point or Dew Point Pressure Procedure: Step 1: Guess a pressure. Step 2: Use the given product temperature and guess pressure to determine the K-values from the DePriester chart. Step 3: Calculate the Rachford Rice expression appropriate to the equilibrium condition. Step 4: Guess a new lower pressure if K values must be higher. Otherwise, guess a higher pressure. Step 5: Repeat Steps 3 and 4 until the Rachford Rice equation is satisfied.
Lecture 6: Bubble and Dew Point

Example: Rachford-Rice
A flash chamber operating 80 degrees C and 500kPa is separating 1000 kg moles/hr of a feed that is 10 mole %ethane, 5 mole %propane, 15 % n-butane, 10 % n-pentane, 12 mole % isopentane, 8 mole %n-hexane, 30 mole %heptane and 10% nonane.

## What are the product compositions and flow rates?

From the Depriester chart: K1 (ethane) = 11.0 K2 (propane) = 4.6 K3 (n-butane) = 1.85 K4 (n-pentane) = 0.75 K5 (isopentane) = 0.9 K6 (n-hexane) = 0.32 K7 (heptane) = 0.14 K8 (nonane) = 0.026 y1 (ethane) = 0.358 y2 (propane) = 0.132 y3 (n-butane) = 0.236 y4 (n-pentane) = 0.11 y5 (isopentane) = 0.079 y6 (n-hexane) = 0.03 y7 (heptane) = 0.051 y8 (nonane) = 0.003

## Lecture 6: Bubble and Dew Point

x1 (ethane) = 0.033 x2 (propane) = 0.029 x3 (n-butane) = 0.128 x4 (n-pentane) = 0.123 x5 (isopentane) = 0.105 x6 (n-hexane) = 0.093 x7 (heptane) = 0.365 x8 (nonane) = 0.125

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## Example: Dew Point Temperature

A flash chamber operating 400 kPa pressure is producing a top product of 35 % n-butane, 30 % n-pentane, 15 mole %n-hexane, 20 mole %heptane. What is the temperature of the flash drum to operate at the dew point? From the Depriester chart: T= T= K1 (n-butane) = K1 (n-butane) = K2 (n-pentane) = K2 (n-pentane) = K3 (n-hexane) = K3 (n-hexane) = K4 (heptane) = K4 (heptane) =

Zi i Ki

## T= K1 (n-butane) = K2 (n-pentane) = K3 (n-hexane) = K4 (heptane) =

Zi i Ki
x1 (n-butane) = x2 (n-pentane) = x3 (n-hexane) = x4 (heptane) =

Zi i Ki

Zi i Ki

V/F= T=

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## Example: Bubble Point Pressure

A flash chamber operating 80 degrees C is producing a bottoms product of 15 % n-butane, 20 % n-pentane, 25 % n-hexane, 40 % heptane. What is the pressure of the flash drum to operate at the bubble point? From the Depriester chart: P= K1 (n-butane) = K2 (n-pentane) = K3 (n-hexane) = K4 (heptane) =

## P= K1 (n-butane) = K2 (n-pentane) = K3 (n-hexane) = K4 (heptane) =

Zi Ki
i
V/F= P=

Zi Ki
i
x1 (n-butane) = 0.15 x2 (n-pentane) = 0.20 x3 (n-hexane) = 0.25 x4 (heptane) = 0.4

Zi Ki
i
y1 (n-butane) = y2 (n-pentane) = y3 (n-hexane) = y4 (heptane) =

Zi Ki
i

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## Lecture 6: Bubble and Dew Point

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Summary
This lecture covered: Using a simple spreadsheet to apply the Rachford Rice Procedure Bubble point and Dew Point temperature and pressure calculations An example of a dew point temperature calculation

Next Lecture will cover: Ternary Liquid-Liquid extractions. Ternary phase diagrams. A procedure to determine the product compositions and flow rates of a liquid-liquid extraction separation.

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