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- a mistake


Desirable format of a hill station

Location with reference to existing settlements Location with reference to topography - on plateaus or

along hill slopes

Optimum size. FSI the quantum, the method of computation and distribution. Town Centre and other land uses


Lavasas Claims
A vision to build new cities Most forward looking Hill Station Path breaking direction in establishing new towns Hill station Live, learn, work & Play philosophy. 15,000 Ha. 2,00,000 Population. 90,000 jobs. 2 million annual visitors.


Live, Learn, Work & play

Is the philosophy Live, Learn, Work & Play a valid and acceptable

philosophy for Hill station?

Or is it more representative of a any prosperous, growing township surging ahead and heavily contributing to nations GDP?


Desirable format of a Hill station

Hill stations definitely not meant for Work.

They are meant to be heavenly spaces offering opportunity of

escape from work.

Work barring personal work, (writing a book, painting or any activity involving self expression) means congregation.

Congregation, even that of mere Residences beyond a certain limit result in traffic movement, air, sound and water pollution and degradation of earth.


Desirable format of a Hill station -1

Hill stations with only Play philosophy i.e. passive solitary
recreation in individual capacity requiring quietness, aloofness, nearness to nature avoiding activities resulting in congregation. Major land use component very low density residential development -comprising of second homes or residences of 60+ persons, extensive green areas, nature trails etc., marginal areas for service population and shopping for day to day life.


Desirable format of a Hill station -2

Hill stations with Live, learn and Play philosophy -Pachgani,

Learning in residential schools away from undesirable influences of urban life and in tune with the nature.

Spin off effect of other land uses results in congregation and

movement and ultimately environmental degradation.


What is Lavasas progress card

90,000 direct jobs in Lavasa limits and 2,00,000 population.

Assuming family size of 4, the no. of families would be 50,000

60% i.e. 30,000 families in Villas and 40% i.e. 20,000 families in Portofino and other apartments

2/3rd villas will be used as second homes

10,000 families will stay in villas and 20,000 in Portofinos.


Lavasas progress card

At three workers in every two families, in 30,000 families there would be about 20,000 workers staying in Lavasa. Remaining 70,000 mostly in sectors like IT, BPO will commute from outside Lavasa, mostly Pune. Is congregation/ commutation in such vast numbers advisable

in a Hill Station.
With many luxury hotels, Lavasa would wean away from Pune a substantial number of patrons from Pune and Hinjewadi

because of easy access.


Lavasas progress card

These luxury hotels would also encourage night life activities, especially with the high IT component in job share. Night life activities would attract night hour commutation from Pune, PCMC disturbing the peaceful atmosphere expected of a Hill Station and even its social fabric. Lavasa Corporation boasts of 2 million annual visitors i.e.

About 6500 visitors daily on an average basis.



Location vis-a-vis present settlement structure

Easy accessibility should be anathema to a hill station, especially

from a throbbing metropolis.

Accessibility increases short time reaction with no allegiance to the Hill Station. Leads to difficulties in city management and arresting

deterioration of physical environment.



Where to locate a hill Stations- Hill tops

Hill tops obviously offer limited canvass

They are few and far apart.

The extent is limited. But for hill stations the adage small is beautiful is all the more true.

Geologically table lesser intervention in drainage pattern Except for access roads the slopes are not disturbed.



Where to locate a hill Stations- Along Hill slopes

Geologically generally not so stable.

Most likely to disturb natural drainage pattern.

Creation of as many shelves as rows of villas ,more road length (paved surface) due to their serpentine alignment. Problems of soil erosion, sedimentation obstruction to sheet flows. Comparatively more disturbance to earths surface. In fact slopes are more obvious choice for plantation. Discourage travel on foot and use of bicycles. More consumption of fuel - consequent pollution.
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Where to locate a hill Stations- Along Hill slopes

1000 villa plots in 600 ha. of Dasve. In 15,000 ha., no. of villas would

be 25,000. At least 15,000 care taker families scattered over the

entire city. In absence of public transport system would use second hand auto two wheelers adding to air and noise pollution.

Out of 90,000 jobs Lavasa proudly proclaims substantial numbers

would be of LIG/ EWS segment using old vehicles. ( The low density nature of development in a Hill Station can not

support public transport system.)



Optimum size
Hill station topography implies narrow winding and steep roads with a very limited traffic carrying capacity. Predominance of personal auto vehicles, especially by the served. Hill Station also have limited approach roads connecting them to them to nearest urban centers.
This compels city managers to provide for in city accommodation to all the servants . Larger the size of Hill Station more complex is the problem.
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Optimum size
With high cost of living in a hill stations even the servants are not

happy to live there.

An appropriate mix of white areas occupied by the served and black areas (the under belly of the city) occupied by the servants

is must.
To uncomplicate the matters the number of the served has to be limited.

Bearing capacity of a plateau should be the criterion.



Plot Size & FSI

Prescribed min. plot size 500 sq. m. equi. to a plot at Deccan

Prescribed FSI is generally 0.30. Does it have flavor of Hill Station? Is the plot big enough to accommodate an outhouse for servants. This would have reduced travel trips by care takers and consequentially the under belly.

FSI apparently reasonable but there are hidden dimensions; i. e.

global FSI is permitted.
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Computation of FSI
Firstly, unlike TDR,FSI per say is not calculated with ref. to

buildable portion of the plot.

This results in generating FSI by merely applying yellow colour to even unbuildable lands.

The unconsumed FSI of buildable plot and that of unbuildable

portion is carried to Town centre plot.



TDR Philosophy
Any plot to be surrendered for claiming TDR is to be leveled, fenced,

provided with access.

In other words it needs to be proved that the plot is fit to be developed for human occupation.

The term Global FSI changes the whole complexion and results in
granting hidden extra FSI.



Comparative FSI calculations

Traditional Method Plot area 100 a) Bad topography 20 b) Roads 15 c) Open users 15 Net plot under actual development 50 Add a+b+c 50 Real FSI 100/50 = 2.0 Global FSI Method Plot area 100 Bad topography 20 Roads 15 Open users 15 Net plot under actual development 50 Global FSI 100/100 = 1.00 Real FSI 100/50 = 2.00



Traditional method





Any suitable area at appropriate height and suitable topographical features can be

declared by Government in Urban Development. Department for purpose of development as Hill Station. (What Criteria?) 2. The area under the development complex shall not be less than 400 hectares and not

more than 2000 ha.


The complex shall also provide 33% of the total area under development as Garden /

Open space / Parks excluding the forest area if any included in the project. ( How to reckon total area?) 22. The Development contemplated shall in no case will involve the cutting of mountains. The

Development contemplated as far as possible shall not involve the cutting of the mountains, however the construction on slopes having gradient between 1:3 to 1:5 shall be allowed preferably by using the stilts.



27. The minimum width of any layout road in this area shall be 9 m.


Any of the Rules except Floor Space Index in the Special Regulations for

development of Tourist Resort/Holiday Homes / Townships in Hill Station type areas may be relaxed by Govt. with or without conditions. Provided that the relaxation sought does not violate health safety, public safety and fire safety

Relaxations granted
1) Town Center is allowed with predominantly Commercial user. 25% of the

developable area is allowed to be developed for Town Center subject to conditions that : b) Town Centre shall be permissible in the valley o flat lower portion and shall not

be permissible on ridge or crest of hill. d) No. of floors permissible shall be G+5.



e) Maximum Height of building in Town Centre shall be 20 mtrs.

f) Marginal Distances shall be as given below :

Front Side Rear 3 Mtrs. ... ... 3 Mtrs. 3 Mtrs.

Global F.S.I. of development shall be considered sector wise and shall be used in the same sector.



D-8 D-1 D-2 D-3 D-4 D-5 D-6 D-7

Hill Station Township

D-1 D-2

D-3 D-4 D-5 D-6 D-7 D-8

D-1 D-2

D-3 D-4 D-5 D-6 D-7


Hill Station Township R + G Zone

100 acre Township

D-1 D-2

D-3 D-4 D-5 D-6 D-7



D-3 D-4 D-5 D-6 D-7


100 Acre Township R Zone


100 Acre Township



Global FSI

Townships within Gr. Mumbai Mun. Corporation limits

1.00 FSI of R Zone (Plots +15 % RG+ Roads*) + 0 20 FSI of NDZ + 0 FSI of Hill top Hill slope Zone.

Townships from Pune District Region 1.00 FSI of R Zone (Plots +15 % RG+ Roads*) + 0 50 FSI of NDZ + 0.30 FSI of NDZ against and within Mun. Corporation limits
premium + 0 FSI of Hill top Hill slope Zone

Townships from Pune District region and outside Mun. Corporation limits

1.00 FSI of R Zone (Plots +15 % RG+ Roads) + 0 .50 FSI of Agricultural Zone + 0.50 FSI of Agricultural Zone against premium + 0 FSI of Hill top Hill slope Zone

Hill Station Township

0.30 FSI for Plots from predominant (R) Zone + 0 FSI of 1:3 Slope 26


The thinking









Sedimentation control
Construction practices in hilly region