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Introductory GAMBIT Notes GAMBIT v2.1 Jul 2003

Edge and Face Meshing

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Introductory GAMBIT Notes GAMBIT v2.1 Jul 2003

Meshing - General

To reduce overall mesh size, confine small cells to areas where they are needed (e.g., where high gradients are expected). Controlling cell size distribution

Edges, Faces and Volumes can be directly meshed

A uniform mesh is generated unless pre-meshing or sizing functions are used. Edge meshes can be graded (varying interval size on edge) Graded edge mesh can be used to control distribution of cell size in face mesh. Controlling distribution of cell size in face mesh also controls distribution of cell size in volume mesh. New feature to control cell size in faces and volumes directly.
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Pre-meshing

Sizing Functions

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Introductory GAMBIT Notes GAMBIT v2.1 Jul 2003

Edge Meshing

Edge mesh distribution is controlled through the spacing and grading parameters. Using the Edge meshing form

Picking

Temporary graphics Links, Directions

Grading/Spacing Special characteristics


Apply and Defaults Invert and Reverse

Options

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Introductory GAMBIT Notes GAMBIT v2.1 Jul 2003

Picking Edges for Meshing

Picking

Temporarily meshed edges

When you pick an edge, the edge is temporarily meshed using white nodes Displayed edge mesh is based on current grading and spacing parameters If you modify the scheme or spacing, the temporary mesh will be immediately updated When you Apply, the mesh nodes will turn blue Sense is used to show direction of grading Every picked edge will show its sense direction using an arrow The sense can be reversed by a shift-middle click on the last edge picked (this is in addition to the "next" functionality) or by clicking on the Reverse button

Sense

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Soft Links

Picking and soft links

Pick with links


By enabling this option, Soft-linked edges can be selected in a single pick Linked edges share the same information and can be picked in a single pick

Modifying soft links

You can anytime:


Form links Break links Maintain links

By default, GAMBIT will form links between unmeshed edges that are picked together By default, GAMBIT will maintain links between meshed edges that are picked together

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Grading

Controls mesh density distribution along an edge. Grading can produce single-sided or double-sided mesh

Single-sided grading Symmetric grading Asymmetric grading

Doubled-sided mesh can be symmetric or asymmetric.

Symmetric schemes produce symmetric mesh about edge center. Asymmetric schemes can produce asymmetric mesh about edge center.

Single-sided grading:

Uses a multiplicative constant, R, to describe the ratio of the length of two adjacent mesh elements, i.e.,

R = l(i+1) / li

R can be specified explicitly (Successive Ratio) or determined indirectly Gambit also uses edge length and spacing information to determine R.
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Double Sided Grading

Symmetric grading schemes implicitly generate double sided grading that is symmetric. Asymmetric schemes are accessible when Double-Sided Option is used with:

Successive Ratio, First Length, Last Length, First-Last Ratio, and Last-First Ratio

The mesh is symmetric if R1 and R2 are equal.


The mesh is asymmetric if R1 and R2 are not equal. Edge center is determined automatically.

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Spacing

Spacing

In all meshing forms, the following spacing functions can be specified:

Interval count - recommended for edge meshing only

A value of 5 creates 5 intervals on the edge (6 nodes, including ends) An edge length of 10 and a value of 20 creates 5 intervals on the edge Identifies the interval size relative to overall dimensions of geometry Identifies "average" interval size if used with grading An edge-length of 10 and a value of 2 creates 5 intervals on the edge Average size of elements/grid is 2

% of edge length - recommended for edge meshing only

Interval size - the default setting

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Introductory GAMBIT Notes GAMBIT v2.1 Jul 2003

First Edge Settings

Use first edge settings enabled First edge selected in pick list updates form Useful to copy settings from one meshed edge to other edges. Use first edge settings disabled Any time you pick two or more meshed edges where there is a difference in:

the Type the Spacing

the local Apply button for that option will be turned off This allows you to maintain pre-existing grading and/or spacing settings for each edge. Enforce a change in grading and/or spacing by enabling Apply button.
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Mesh Options

Apply without meshing

This option is useful in cases where you want to impose a scheme without fixing the number of intervals The higher level meshing scheme will decide (and match) the intervals

Example

Specify fixed interval and no grading Specify double sided grading and Apply without Meshing on bottom edges Face meshing will automatically match mesh

Remove Old Mesh

Deletes old mesh Sizing function has precedence on meshing unless this option is enabled.

Ignore Sizing Function

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Face Meshing

Face Meshing form

Upon picking a face


GAMBIT automatically chooses Quad elements GAMBIT chooses the Type based on the

Solver/face vertex types

Available element/scheme type combinations

Quad

Quad/Tri

Map Submap Tri-Primitive Pave Pave

Map Pave Wedge

Tri

Gambit also has quad-to-tri conversion utility.

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Face Meshing - Quad Examples

Quad: Map

Quad: Submap

Quad: Tri-Primitive

Quad: Pave

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Face Meshing - Quad/Tri and Tri Examples

Quad/Tri: Map

Quad/Tri: Pave

Quad/Tri: Wedge

Tri: Pave

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Deleting Old Mesh

Existing mesh must be removed before remeshing.

Mesh can be deleted using delete mesh form. Lower topology mesh can also be deleted (default)

Existing mesh can also be removed in all Create mesh forms without the need for Delete mesh

Remove mesh

Leaves all lower topology mesh Removes all lower mesh that is not shared with another entity

Remove mesh + lower mesh

Undo after meshing operation also works!


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Hard Linking

Mesh Links (Hard Links)

Mesh linked entities have identical mesh

created for periodic boundary conditions Best to use soft links for edge meshing To link volume meshes, all faces must be mesh hard linked first.
+ + + +

Applicable to Edge, Face, and Volume entities

Setting up Hard Links for Faces

Select faces and reference vertices


Edge sense will appear Reverse orientation on by default for sense Periodic option can be used for split edges mesh on second face generated automatically

Mesh one face before or after hard link is defined

Multiple pairs of hard links can be created.


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Assessing Mesh Quality

Default measure of quality is based on EquiAngle Skew. Definition of EquiAngle Skew:


max e e min max , 180 e e

where:

max = largest angle in face or cell min = smallest angle in face or cell e = angle for equiangular face or cell

max min

e.g., 60 for triangle, 90 for square

Range of skewness:
0 best 1 worst

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Examining the Mesh


Examine Mesh Form

Display Type

Plane/Sphere

View mesh elements that fall in plane or sphere. View mesh elements within quality range. Histogram shows quality distribution. Show worst element automatically zooms into worst element

Range

Select 2D/3D and Element Type Select Quality Type Change cell display attributes.

Display Mode

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Striving for Quality

A poor quality grid will cause inaccurate solutions and/or slow convergence. Minimize EquiAngle Skew:

Hex and Quad Cells

Skewness should not exceed 0.85.

Tris

Skewness should not exceed 0.85.


Skewness should not exceed 0.9

Tets

Minimize local variations in cell size:

e.g., adjacent cells should not have size ratio greater than 20%. Delete mesh Perform necessary decomposition and/or pre-mesh edges and faces. Remesh
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If Examine Mesh shows such violations:


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Introductory GAMBIT Notes GAMBIT v2.1 Jul 2003

Mesh Smoothing

Gambit generally incorporates default smoothing scheme after initial mesh on face or in volume is created.

Default scheme can be changed in Edit - Defaults

Different scheme can be selected and applied after meshing.

Face mesh smoothing


Length-weighted Laplacian Centroid Area Winslow

Volume mesh smoothing

Length-weighted Laplacian Equipotential


Option allows frees boundary mesh.
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Boundary mesh by default is fixed.

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Assigning Boundary and Continuum Types

The Boundary Type Form

Enter entities to be grouped into single zone in entity list box.

First choose entity type as face or edge. Available types depend on Solver

Select boundary type for zone (entity group).

Name zone if desired. Apply defines zone and boundary type.

Can also modify and delete zone/boundary. External faces/edges are walls Internal faces/edges are interior

By default,

The Continuum Type Form


Similar operation. All continuum zones are by default, fluid.


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FLUENT 5/6 Example: Flow over a Heated Obstacle

Boundary: Name = inlet Type = VELOCITY_INLET

Boundary: Name = outlet Type = PRESSURE_OUTLET


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Continuum: Name = step Type = SOLID


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Defaults: Example: Flow over a Heated Obstacle

By default, the 4 remaining external faces have the Name and Type: Boundary: Name = wall Type = WALL

By default, the one remaining volume has the Name and Type Continuum: Name = fluid Type = FLUID

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