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POPULATION ECOLOGY

Power point@lecture Slides Are Prepared By Biology Lecturer, KMPk

TOPICS 13.1 Population Growth

PREVIOUS LESSON
Ecosystem management through conservation and preservation

Nature reserves

national parks

Planned land

Legal protection of endangered species

Commercial farming

OBJECTIVES
At the end of this topic, students should be able to;
Explain biotic potential (r) and environmental resistance and their effect on population growth

Explain carrying capacity and its importance

Describe natality and mortality and their effects on the rate of population growth

Population Growth

The increase in the number of individuals in a population A population will increase in number when the available resources are greater than required at that particular time.

Population growth is affected by:

a) Natality (birth rate) - The rate at which a particular species or population produces offspring

b) Mortality (death rate) - The rate at which a particular species or population dies, whatever the cause.

Biotic Potential (r)

Maximum number of offspring an organism can produce under ideal conditions.

" power of organisms to reproduce and survive" Chapman (1925)

Ideal condition : - plenty of space for each member - unlimited resources - no resistance

Important in population growth - to sustain unlimited growth

Reality- exponential growth cannot continue for long because of environmental resistance

Environmental Resistance

All those environmental conditions

that prevent populations from achieving their biotic potential.

Interplay between biotic potential and environmental resistance - determines the size of a population of a species

When populations become too large, - Run out of some limiting resource

As a result, - Growth slows to zero - Population size tends to stabilize

Limited supply of food

Predation

Increased competition between members

Accumulation of waste products

Temperature

pH Light

A growth curve with an S-shape

The effect of environmental resistance The effect of environmental resistance on the population growth on the population growth

Carrying Capacity(K)
Maximum number of individuals of a population that can be supported by a particular habitat

The closer population size gets to the Carrying Capacity, the greater will be the environment resistance. (environmental resistance)

Number of Individuals

Carrying Capacity

(biotic potential)

Equilibrium Exponential Growth

Time

Determined by both biotic Determined by both biotic potential andand environmental potential environmental resistance resistance Changes in response to Changes in response to environmental changes environmental changes

Eg: During drought Eg; During drought The amount of vegetation The amount of vegetation will decrease will decrease Lower the carrying capacity Lower the carrying capacity for for deerdeer

The importance of carrying capacity


Important limit on populations To prevent population crash

CONCLUSION
Environmental resistance Biotic potential (r)

Discuss these terms :

Natality and mortality

Carrying capacity

Question 1

What is the meaning of carrying capacity (K) of the population?

NEXT LECTURE
Population Growth Curves

Limiting Factors Affecting the Population Size