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SEMINAR ON CHILD ABUSE

Submitted To Dr. Jasheena Singh Prof. and HOD Dept. of Pedodontics

Guided By Dr. Subhash Singh Dr. Garima Singh Dr. shivika

Submitted by
ASHISH KUSHWAH ROLL NO. ~13 B.D.S. FINAL YEAR

CONTENT :1.INTRODUCTION 2. DEFINITION 3. TYPES 4. STATISTICS 5. EXAMINATION

6. SPECIFIC MARKS
7. CHILD PROTECTIVE AGENCIES 8. INDIAN LAWS FOR CHILD ABUSE 9. ATTEMPTS TO PREVENT CHILD ABUSE IN INDIA 10. CONCLUSION 11. REFERENCE

1. Introduction
Child abuse has existed since the dawn of history. Religious sacrifices and abandonment of children are frequently referred to in Greek & roman mythologies as well as in Bible. The abuse of child labor in the nineteenth century in Britain is well documented and has been reviewed elsewhere. It is only in recent times that the changing social values have led to the identification of child abuse as a widespread medico-social problem nationally & internationally.

2. Definition
By Selwyn Et Al, 1985
Child abuse is defined as the non accidental physical injury, minimal or fatal, inflicted upon children by persons caring for them. It is an overt act of commission of a care taker-physical, emotional or sexual.

Battered Baby

It is a child who show clinical or radiographic evidence of lesion that are frequently multiple & involve mainly the head, soft tissue, long bones, thoracic cage & that cannot be unequivocally explained.

3. Types of Child Abuse


Physical abuse : - 31.8 % Educational abuse : - 26.3% Emotional abuse : - 23.3% Sexual Abuse : - 6.8 % Failure to thrive :- 4% Intentionally drugging or poisoning : - Not specified Munchausen syndrome by proxy Not specified
6.80% 4%

31.80%
26.30%

Physical Abuse Educational Abuse Emotional abuse Sexual abuse

A) Physical Abuse

1. It is a non-accidental means of trauma to the body of the child, which may result in severe injury or each death. 2. These type of injuries may be inflicted by parents, relatives or baby sitters.

Physical Abuse

B) Educational Abuse

Parent do-not educate their children or are not bothered about the chronic absenteeism of the child from school

C) Emotional Abuse

The child is emotionally attacked by parents, teachers or any caretakers. The child is harassed verbally in front of other which makes him feel of low status

D) Sexual Abuse
National centre on child abuse & neglect defines sexual abuse as To include contacts or interactions between a child and on adult. Evidence for suspecting sexual abuse are: Report by patient or guardian Physical trauma or infection especially around anus or genitals Pregnancy

E) Failure To thrive
Some parents may not take care of the newborn & thus the child may be malnourished & underweighted.

F) Intentional Poisoning/Drugging
Uncommon lethal type of child abuse, involving administration of a harmful drug that is not intended to be used by the child.

Parents in this case are usually drug abusers or severe mental problem

G) MunChausens Syndrome
Parents fabricate or induce illness subject the child to unnecessary medical investigation hospital admissions treatment. Children are usually less than 6 years of age.

4. Statistics
i) At least 60 % cases remains undetected ii) The average age of detection of child abuse & neglect is 7.4 years iii) Reported cases in females 51% Males 49%

iv) Sexual abuse common in females Physical abuse common in males

5. Examination for child abuse


The dentist & staff should be educated enough to get a visual impression of the child as he /she enters the reception room.
Practitioner should note the interaction of child with parents.

Common sites to be examined


Many abused or neglected children due to fear may appear overly vigilant or display a frozen watchfulness with constant staring or many can avoid eye contact
Dentist should observe the child for lack of cleanliness & sign of malnutrition like posture of fatigue, flat chest a protuberant abdomen. Face and neck should be examined for periorbital ecchymosis , hand slap marks.

6. Some Specific Marks


A) Human Hand Marks B) Strap Marks C) Bizarre Marks D) Bite Marks

A) Human Hand Marks


Hand marks are prevalent in almost 22% cases and can leave various kind of bruises.
Grab marks or finger tips bruises :- Most common are grab marks or squeeze marks, oval shaped bruises that resembles finger tips. Most common site is upper arm or shoulder In Slap marks to the cheek , 2 or 3 parallel linear bruises at the finger width spacing will be seen to run through amore diffuse bruise.

Human Hand Marks

B) Strap Marks
Strap Marks are 1 -2 inch width , Sharp border or rectangular bruises of various length, Sometimes covering a curved body surface.

Strap Marks

C) Bizarre Marks
Bizarre shaped bruises with borders are nearly always infected when a blunt instrument is used Seen in cases when caretaker loses temper and randomly grabs the object which is handy

Circumferential tie marks on the ankle or wrist can be caused when the child is restrained
Gagging abrasion is due to restraining of the crying or yelling of the child.

D) Bite Marks
Marks caused by teeth alone or in combination with other oral parts or consist of teeth marks produced by the antagonist teeth, which can be as two opposing arch marks. Bite mark is an after common lesion seen in cases of child abuse on the sites like arms, hands shoulders, cheek, buttocks & trunk.

Bite Marks

7. CHILD PROTECTIVE AGENCIES


1. CRY {Child relief & you}
2. NATIONAL HUMAN RIGHTS COMMISSION

3. PRERNA 4. AKANSHA 5. DEEPALAYA

8. INDIAN LAWS FOR CHILD ABUSE


India has no laws as for child abuse per se.
Physical abuse : Violence in home : - IPC 323/324 Sexual abuse : Girls Statutory rape : - IPC 376 Boys Unnatural sexual offence : - IPC 377

9. ATTEMPTS TO PREVENT CHILD ABUSE IN INDIA


Child labor is the common child abuse in India. For this government has made efforts to prevent child labor. Law in India including the 1986 child labor act stating that children under 14 years cannot be employed in hazardous occupation

10. CONCLUSION
Children in our society are subjected to various types of child abuse which hampers the growth & development of our society, so it is the duty of society to eradicate child abuse and provide a fearless environment to the child as they are the future of our race.

Thank

You ..

11. REFERENCE
1. SHOBHA TANDAN (Text book of Pedodontics) 2. ARATHI RAO (Principal & Practices of Pedodontics ) 3. 4.