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Introduction to Surfactants

Presentation outline

Basic Surfactant Chemistry Surfactant Properties Surfactant Classification The Applications

Basic Surfactant Chemistry

Oil & water dont mix !

Surfactant

Surfactants are compounds that stabilize mixtures of oil and water by reducing the surface tension at the interface between the oil and water molecules. Surfactants are amphiphilic in nature i.e.; they contain 2 distinct structural units:

Tail or hydrophobic group which has little affinity for water this group is usually hydrocarbon (alkyl) chain Head or hydrophilic group which has strong affinity for water & can be neutral or charged.

Surfactants at the air-water Interface

Surfactants - behavior

Surfactants reduce the surface tension of water by adsorbing at the liquid-gas interface. They also reduce the interfacial tension between oil and water by adsorbing at the liquid-liquid interface. At higher concentrations surfactants have the tendency to assemble into aggregates. Examples of such aggregates are vesicles and micelles. The concentration at which surfactants begin to form micelles is known as the critical micelle concentration or CMC.

Surfactant- micelle

In a micelle : The lipophilic tails of the surfactant molecules remain on the inside of the micelle The polar heads of the micelle form a hydrophilic outer layer that in effect protects the hydrophobic core of the micelle.

What is cloud point & pour point?

The Cloud point of a fluid is the temperature at which dissolved solids are no longer completely soluble, precipitating as a second phase giving the fluid a cloudy appearance. The pour point of a liquid is the lowest temperature at which it will pour or flow under prescribed conditions.

What is cloud point & pour point?

What is HLB of a surfactant?


The Hydrophilic-lipophilic balance [HLB]of a surfactant is a measure of the degree to which it is hydrophilic or lipophilic, determined by calculating values for the different regions of the molecule.

HLB value significance

HLB Value

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Water in oil emulsifier

Oil in water Emulsifiers

Use Wetting Agents Detergents

Solubilizer

The Properties

Properties of Surfactants
Wetting Emulsification Dispersion / Solubilisation Foaming / De-foaming Detergency Conditioning Substantivity Thickening

Wetting

Emulsification

Surfactant Classification

Surfactant classes
Surfactants are broadly classified into the following four groups based on the ionic charges they carry: Anionic surfactants Nonionic surfactants Cationic surfactants Amphoteric surfactants

Surfactant grouping
Anionic
Fatty alcohol sulfates
Fatty alcohol ether sulfates Lauryl alcohol ethoxylates Sulfosuccinates Amides Betaines

Non Cationic ionic

Amphoteric

Glycol stearates , Glyceryl cocoate


Benzalkonium chloride

The Applications

The Applications
Oral Skin Sodium Lauryl Sulfate Ammonium Lauryl Sulfate Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate Ammonium Lauryl Ether Sulfate Alcohol ethoxylates Sulfosuccinate Ethanolamides Amine oxide Hair Soap Bath Sun Disinfectant/ protection Bleaching

The Applications
Oral Skin Hair Soap Bath Disinfectant/ Bleaching Benzalkonium chloride

CAPB CAPB - DC PEG -7 Glyceryl Cocoate

Surfactant based Soap noodles & flakes

Equipped with his five senses, man explores the universe around him and calls the adventure Science.
Edwin Powell Hubble