Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 18

1/18/13

Sources of knowledge
Presented Click to edit Master subtitle style

1/18/13

Knowledge

It is familiarity with someone or something. It include facts, information, descriptions, or skills acquired through experience or education. It can be implicit ( as with practical skills or exercises) or explicit ( as with theoretical understandings)

1/18/13

Need of knowledge
We face two serious epistemological problems.

How can we determine which facts are true?

As human beings living in the 21st Century we are surrounded by a wealth of information but 1/18/13 all of it is not

Sources of knowledge

Word source means Anything (a document or organization) from which information is obtained.

That from which anything come forth regarded as its cause or origin, the person from whom anything originates (first cause).

The ways or means by which we acquire knowledge are called sources of knowledge.
1/18/13

Sources of knowledge
belief senses

science

Sources of knowled ge

percepti on

reasonin g

1/18/13

Here we are going to explain three sources of knowledge.


senses

reasons science
1/18/13

Senses

The information from senses is empirical knowledge.

Fundamental source of all the knowledge is our senses.

Our senses are exploratory organs, we use them to become acquainted with the world we live in.

1/18/13

Kinds of senses
We have a number of different kinds of senses.

The objective senses includes sight, hearing, smell, touch and taste.

The visceral senses, in our mouths and gut that give us the sense of stomach ache The proprioceptive senses, in our muscles that tell 1/18/13

How sense can act as a source of knowledge?


By the use of our sight we can evaluate about the objects size, distance and colour.

Our sense of touch helps us to appraise about the objects temperature, its strength, its flexibility or its shape.

Similarly our smelling sense helps us to check the smell of an object.

With the help of our hearing sense we can listen as well as we can differentiate between different sounds in our surroundings.
1/18/13

Reasonings

Reasoning might be defined as the process of using known facts to arrive at new facts.

Reason can help us arrive at new facts or new knowledge but only as long as the original facts we put into the process are correct and the process itself is reliable.

Reasoning generally comes in two forms: deduction and induction.

Deduction is the kind of reasoning usually used in Maths and is the more certain of the two as it involves drawing out valid conclusions from previously known facts.
1/18/13

How reasoning helps us in acquiring knowledge?

It collects facts, generalizes, reasons out from cause to effect, from effect to cause, from premises to conclusions, from propositions to proofs. It concludes, decides and comes to final judgment. It takes you safely to the door of intuition and leaves you there.
1/18/13

Science
The word science came from a Latin word which

means knowledge.

The definition of science is "knowledge attained through study or practice," or "knowledge covering general truths of the operation of general laws, esp. as obtained and tested through scientific method concerned with the physical world. It builds and organizes knowledge in the form of 1/18/13 testable explanations and predictions about the

Science as a source of knowledge

When certain amount of quantifiable information has been gathered, the process of science constructs a theory to account for the problem under investigation.

On the basis of that theory, certain predictions are made, which are tested.

Scientific theories are widely regarded as knowledge, though they are always subject to further revision or review should new data come to light.

1/18/13

Steps of acquiring knowledge in science

Scientists start by finding a phenomenon of interest, which generates questions.

Scientist then picks a question of interest, and based on previous knowledge, develops a hypothesis

Scientist then designs a controlledexperimentwhich will allow him to test the hypothesis against the real world.

He then makes predictions about the outcome of the test, based on the hypothesis.
1/18/13

contin

If they match, this is evidence in favor of the hypothesis. If they donotmatch, then the hypothesis has beenfalsified. The next steps arepeer reviewand publication, through which the results are distributed to other scientists.

1/18/13

LAB EXPERIMENTS ARE A MAJOR SOURCE OF KNOWLEDGE IN THE SOCIAL SCIENCES

The process of performing experiments in lab was first introduced by the Muslim scientists.

Before Muslim scientists, Greeks scientist used to explain the scientific facts and phenomenon theoretically

Laboratory experiments are a widely used methodology for advancing causal knowledge in the physical and life sciences.

The facts obtained by the laboratory experiments are much 1/18/13

Thank you.

1/18/13