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Health Science I Health Science II Mrs.

Morel

Nonpathogens do not cause disease

Resident flora always present


E coli in the intestines

Prevent overgrowth of harmful microorganisms

Transient flora limited periods of time


Vigorous handwashing with soap and water is an

effective means of removing flora

Pathogens cause disease

Bacteria

Diarrhea, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, gonorrhea;

single cell organisms that lack a true nucleus

Viruses
Fungi

Common cold, flu, herpes, HIV; only live inside cells Athletes foot, hair, skin, and nail infections; plant-like

Protozoa

organisms

Malaria, gastroenteritis, vaginal infections; single-celled

Rickettsia

parasitic organisms that can move

Bites of insects; Lyme disease & Rocky Mt spotted fever;

Helminths

intercellular parasites that need to be in living cells to reproduce

Parasitic worms; pinworms and tapeworms

Virulence

The frequency which a pathogen causes disease

Pathogenicity

The ability of a microorganism to produce disease

Causative Agent

Susceptible host

Source or reservoir

Portal of entry

Portal of exit

Mode of transmission

Cleansing, disinfection, sterilization Proper hygiene; clean linen, equipment, dressings Control of excretions & secretions Handwashing, standard precautions

Skin integrity, sterile technique


Immunizations, proper nutrition, intact immune system

Humans (carriers may be free of symptoms) Insects and animals Environment Fomites

Objects that are contaminated with agent


Instruments Linen Bedpans/urinals Faucets/doorknobs Specimen containers

Body secretions

Sputum, semen, vaginal secretions, urine, saliva, feces, blood, draining wounds

Vectorborne

Transmitted by animate objects insects or animals


Lyme disease

Vehicle

Transmitted by inanimate objects food or water


Salmonellosis or food poisoning

Airborne

Contaminated droplets or dust particles


Measles, anthrax spores

Contact

Indirect dirty linen, equipment Direct colds, flu, sexually transmitted diseases

Breaks in skin or mucous membrane Inhaling contaminated droplets Ingesting contaminated food or water Bites of insects or animals From mother to fetus transplacental Sexual contact

Increased age Another disease process Stress Incomplete immunizations Lifestyle Occupation Nutrition BMI Heredity

Nonspecific

Skin and mucous membranes Sneezing, coughing, tears

Elimination, body acids


Fever

Inflammation brings blood and phagocytes of area


of infection

Specific Immune Defense

B cells Plasma cells Helper T cells Killer T cells Suppressor T cells Memory Cells Macrophages Acquired immunity

Acquired in a hospital Improper handwashing responsible Also known as hospital acquired infections

Urinary tract Surgical wounds

Pneumonia
Septicemia

The use of bacteria, viruses, or germs (pathogens) to cause illness and spread fear Heightened awareness after 9/11

Agents used

Anthrax Smallpox Pneumonic Plague Botulism

Bedbugs

Cause rash from bite on some people Professional exterminator must be used Caused by a mite Treatment includes creams, lotions, cleaning Do not fly or jump Cannot catch from pets or animals Spread by sharing personal belongings

Scabies

Head lice

Incubation

Time between entry of agent and the onset of symptoms Time from onset of nonspecific symptoms until specific symptoms begin to appear
Time when specific signs and symptoms appear Time from when symptoms disappear and when the patient returns to previous state of health

Prodromal

Illness

Convalescence

Standard

Precautions

Handwashing

After contact with blood or body fluids (even w/gloves) After removing gloves Use plain soap Wash hands for minimum of 20 seconds

Gloves
When possibility of touching blood, body fluids When touching mucous membranes When touching nonintact skin

Masks, Goggles, Face Shield

Wear when likely to be sprayed or splashed Wear to protect skin and clothing if sprays or splashes likely Handle carefully, make sure its cleaned properly, dispose of single use items properly

Gown

Equipment

Used in addition to standard or universal precautions

Based on route of transmission of suspected disease

Contact

Airborne
Droplet

Also known as protective isolation Used for patients who are susceptible to infection

Chemotherapy Radiation therapy

Leukemia
Burns

Disinfection process of eliminating pathogens from equipment and instruments by chemical solutions Sterilization all microorganisms are removed from equipment and instruments by steam, radiation, chemicals, ethylene gas Never recap used needles Place used disposable sharps in puncture resistant containers Use mouthpieces or other ventilation devices instead of giving mouth to mouth resuscitation