Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 19

Chapter 8 Attitudes and Values

ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOUR

ATTITUDES AND VALUES


Himalaya Publishing House

Organisational Behaviour K. Aswathappa

Chapter 8 Attitudes and Values

Definition

Attitude is defined as a learned predisposition to respond in a consistent favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to given object.

Himalaya Publishing House

Organisational Behaviour K. Aswathappa

Chapter 8 Attitudes and Values

Nature of Attitudes

Attitudes are learned. Attitudes refer to feelings and beliefs of an individual or groups of people. These feelings and beliefs define ones predispositions towards given aspects of the world. Attitudes endure, unless something happens. For example if X is transferred to day shift, his attitude may become positive. Attitudes can fall anywhere along a continuum for very favorable to very unfavorable. Such expressions as This B-School is good, This leader is corrupt and incompetent are heard from people. Attitudes are organized and are core to an individual. All people, irrespective of their status or intelligence, hold attitudes.

Himalaya Publishing House

Organisational Behaviour K. Aswathappa

Chapter 8 Attitudes and Values

Three Components of Attitudes

Work Related Components of Attitudes

Himalaya Publishing House

Organisational Behaviour K. Aswathappa

Chapter 8 Attitudes and Values

Formation of Attitudes

Himalaya Publishing House

Organisational Behaviour K. Aswathappa

Chapter 8 Attitudes and Values

Benefits of Positive Attitudes


Increases productivity Fosters teamwork Solves problems Improves quality Makes for congenial atmosphere Breeds loyalty Increases profits Fosters better relationships with employees, employers and customers Reduces stress Makes for a pleasing personality. Functions of Attitudes
Himalaya Publishing House

Organisational Behaviour K. Aswathappa

Chapter 8 Attitudes and Values

Changing attitudes

Himalaya Publishing House

Organisational Behaviour K. Aswathappa

Chapter 8 Attitudes and Values

Changing attitudes

a)
b) c) d) e) f)

Self: Think for self Demerits of negative attitude Open mind Get into continuous education Avoid negative influences Build positive self
Organisational Behaviour K. Aswathappa

Himalaya Publishing House

Chapter 8 Attitudes and Values

Changing attitudes

a)
b) c) d) e) f)

Others: Feedback Accentuate positive conditions Positive role model Use of fear Provide new information Co-opting strategy
Organisational Behaviour K. Aswathappa

Himalaya Publishing House

Chapter 8 Attitudes and Values

Cognitive dissonance

Cognitive dissonance is the term used in modern psychology to describe the discomfort felt by a person seeking to hold two or more conflicting cognitions (e.g., ideas, beliefs, values, emotional reactions) simultaneously

Himalaya Publishing House

Organisational Behaviour K. Aswathappa

Chapter 8 Attitudes and Values

Major Job Attitudes

Job Involvement:
This measures the degree to which people identify psychologically with their job and consider their perceived performance level important to self worth.

Psychological empowerment: Employees belief in


the degree to which they effect their work environment, their competence, the meaningfulness of their job, and their job, and their perceived autonomy.

Himalaya Publishing House

Organisational Behaviour K. Aswathappa

Chapter 8 Attitudes and Values

Major Job Attitudes

Organizational commitment: The degree to which


an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals to maintain membership with the organization.

a)

b)

c)

Affective commitment is an emotional attachment to the organization and a belief in its values. Continuance commitment: is the perceived economic value of remaining with an organization. Normative commitment: is an obligation to remain with the organization for ethical or moral reasons.
Himalaya Publishing House

Organisational Behaviour K. Aswathappa

Chapter 8 Attitudes and Values

Major Job Attitudes

Perceived Organizational support: is the degree to which employees believe that the organization values their contribution and cares about their well being. Employee engagement: An individuals involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for, the work she does.

Himalaya Publishing House

Organisational Behaviour K. Aswathappa

Chapter 8 Attitudes and Values

Job Satisfaction

a) b) c) d)

A positive feeling about ones job resulting from evaluation of its characteristics. Causes of job satisfaction:
Salary Working conditions Promotion Organizational policies Nature of work Supervision

e)
f)

Himalaya Publishing House

Organisational Behaviour K. Aswathappa

Chapter 8 Attitudes and Values

Measuring Job satisfaction

Surveys Critical incident Interviews Indicator analysis: absenteeism, turnover, grievance, accidents etc.

Himalaya Publishing House

Organisational Behaviour K. Aswathappa

Chapter 8 Attitudes and Values

Job Satisfaction Model

Work Environment And Job Satisfaction Some Possible Relationship


Himalaya Publishing House

Organisational Behaviour K. Aswathappa

Chapter 8 Attitudes and Values

Responses to Job Dissatisfaction

Behavioural Intentions Model

Himalaya Publishing House

Organisational Behaviour K. Aswathappa

Summary

Chapter 8 Attitudes and Values

Attitude is an important variable in individual behaviour. Attitude refers to beliefs, feelings and behavioural tendencies of people towards objects, people and ideas. ABC model seeks to better explain the nature of attitude. A stands for affective-feelings; B stands for behaviour action tendencies; and C stands for cognition- beliefs and opinion. Attitudes are formed by direct experience with the object, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, vicarious learning, family and peer groups, neighbourhood and mass communication. Positive attitude insures such benefits to the organization as increased productivity, better quality, reduced stress, improved loyalty and the like. Attitude serves important functions such as adjustment, ego-defense, value expressive and knowledge. Attitudes of individuals and groups need to be changed. But change is difficult because of three barriers - escalation of commitment, cognitive dissonance, and insufficient information. There are hints available to change attitudes both at the individual and group levels. Job satisfaction is one type of attitude. It refers to the general attitude of employees towards their jobs. Job satisfaction is the cause for several benefits and consequence of many factors. It is useful to measure job satisfaction and OB experts have suggested several techniques for measuring. Another work related attitude is organizational commitment. Organizational commitment refers to the strength of an employees involvement in the organization and identification with it. Organizational commitment varies across countries, Asian countries score high on this variable. Values represent stable, long-lasting beliefs about what is important. There are personal as well as organizational values. An individual enters organization with his or her values which often clash with organizational values. They need to be merged for increased organizational effectiveness. Attitude is an important concept in the study of OB as it has influence on perception, satisfaction and commitment. Values influence attitudes, motivation and perception.

Himalaya Publishing House

Organisational Behaviour K. Aswathappa

Chapter 8 Attitudes and Values

Key Terms

Attitude ABC model Cognitive dissonance Organizational commitment

Value Escalation of commitment Job satisfaction Behaviour Intentions Model

Himalaya Publishing House

Organisational Behaviour K. Aswathappa