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Transformer

A primary coil(s) and a secondary coil(s) coupled to the same magnetic flux. The flux may be:
in air (air core),or, magnetic material (magnetic core)

Ideal transformer
Assumptions
Very little current can produce large flux The windings are lossless (R=0)

Ideal transformers do not exist. Good transformers are near ideal

Input-Output Relations- Ideal

Vs/Vp = Ns/Np [Direct relation] Ps=Pp, or Vs.Is=Vp.Np [Conservation] Is/Ip =Vp/Vs [Inverse relation ]

Example
Ideal transformer. Turns ratio 4:1. Vp=220 v, ZL=100 ohm. Find Vs, Is, Ip. Impedance seen by source. Vs/Vp=Ns/Np Vs=Vp Ns/Np =220 (1)/4=55 v Is=Vs/100 =0.55 A Vs.Is=Vp.Ip Ip= Vs.Is/Vp =0.1375 A Zin=220/0.1375 =1600 ohm Comment 1600= 100 (Np/Ns)2

Impedance Transformation
Vp/Vs=Is/Ip (Vp/Vs) (Vp/Vs)=(Vp/Ip) / (Vs/Is) (Vp/Vs)2 =Zp/Zs Zp/Zs =(Vp/Vs)2= (Np/Ns)2 In the previous example a 100 resistor in the secondary was presented by the transformer to the source as a 1600 ohm resistor, because (Np/Ns)2=16. IMPEDANCE is transformed as the square of turns ratio.

Isolation Transformer
A 1:1 transformer (Np/Ns=1) is sometimes used for isolation. This reduces the chances of a short to ground while working on a machine. Every transformer isolates the primary from the secondary unless a conducting connection is specially made between the two.

Transformer Ratings
Main specifications of a transformer are: Turns Ratio ( step down/ up Ratio) Power Rating. In watts or volt amp Voltage rating Type of core Frequency of use.

Problems
1. An ideal transformer with Np:Ns= 10 is connected with mains in the primary. What load should be connected to the secondary so that the primary current is 1A. What is the power consumed then in the load? Ans: 2.2 ohm; 220 W, if load resistive. 2. A load of 4+j3 ohm is connected to the secondary of a transformer. If the load current magnitude is not to exceed 1 A, specify the turns ratio of the transformer. What will be the power rating of the transformer? Ans: 44:1 , 5VA

Solenoid

A solenoid is a coil of wire which magnetizes when a current flows through it

Solenoids

The field near the wires is still circular, but farther away the fields blend into a nearly constant field down the axis.
November 7, 2007

Solenoid

A soft iron slug along the axis of the solenoid will try to move to a position of maximum flux.

Solenoid

Thus this slug becomes a plunger which can be used to control switch contacts, mechanical valves etc. Such valves are known as Solenoid (Operated) Valves

Example- Solenoid
High current contacts of an automobile starter are switched by a Solenoid, before the starter can be energized. A solenoid in the home water heater (geyser) holds the gas valve open when thermocouple current passes through it. The Thermocouple gives just enough drive to hold it when and only when the pilot flame heats it.

Example- Solenoid Valves


CNG fitted cars have at least two such valves which open alternately to allow CNG or petrol to the engine. An electric fuel pump in the car will almost invariably be operated by a solenoid operating a diaphragm. Many electromechanical ACTUATORS will use solenoids

A toroid
A toroid is a shape, like a doughnut A coil wound in a toroid form is often referred to as a Toroid. Most flux is contained within the toroid, and hence cannot be used for control