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# BASIC AERODYNAMICS (aerodinmica bsica)

## February 28, 2007 School of Missionary Aviation Technology Lowell, MI

Aerodynamics Defined

## Aero is from aer air , Greek 1000 B.C.

Dynamics - the study of motion Aerodynamic The scientific study of the movement of air or other gases relative to stationary or moving solid bodies immersed in them, AIRPLANES IN THE SKY! Aerodynamics The qualities required for fast and efficient movement through the air.

Objective
Exhibit correlative knowledge of the basics of aerodynamics, as it relates to Airfoil design characteristics, stability and controllability, and primary flight controls. Pretty much know where things are, as well as why and how they are there.

## Before we go any farther!

Allow me to introduce the true pioneer and Padre de Aviacion.(father of Aviation)..

## Alberto Santos Dumont

The Basics
Ability to remain suspended: Wing (Rotor Blade)

The Basics
Stability: Tail

The Basics
Control: Flight Surface

The Basics

## A Mexican in the Military!

Aircraft Sections
Fuselage houses Cockpit & Engine on single engine A/C

Aircraft Sections

## Airfoils (plano aerodinmico)

What is an airfoil?
Any surface designed to obtain a useful action, or lift, from air passing over it.,i.e. WING, propeller, rotor blade Airfoil Terminology
Camber: Amount of curve in an aerodynamic section. Measured in % chord. Chord Line:Imaginary line drawn from leading edge to trailing edge. Mean Camber line:Line drawn midway between the upper and lower surfaces.

## Airfoils (plano aerodinmico)

Angle of Attack
Angle between chord line and relative wind

## Airfoils (plano aerodinmico)

Angle of Incidence
Angle between chord line of airfoil and longitudinal axis of a/c.

## Airfoils (plano aerodinmico)

Cambered airfoils produced lift at zero angle of attack.
Symmetric (no camber) airfoils do not produce lift at zero angle of attack

## What happens during a stall?

Flow over the top surface separates from the airfoil, resulting in a high pressure wake region

Dihedral
Angle formed between a/c lateral axis and line which passes through the center of the wing.

Airfoils
NASAs FoilSim II airfoil simulation program: (see link in online classroom)

Dihedral
Dihedral increases lateral stability Dihedral increases angle of attack

Wings (Alas)
Elliptical Wing
Costly \$\$\$\$\$ Good Load Distribution Gs Even stall dispersing

Wings (Alas)
Rectangular Wing
Inexpensive Low load capability Low Speeds Stall inboard 1/3

Wings (Alas)
Tapered
Great Load Distribution Stall Inboard section 1/2

Wings (Alas)
Delta
Supersonic Flight

Flight Controls
Aileron
causes rotation about the longitudinal axis.

Flight Controls
Elevator: controls up/down movement. Control about lateral axis.
Stabilator: single piece control surface. Acts as horizontal stabilizer and Elevator. (Piper 140)

Flight Controls
Remember an Elevator creates negative or downward lift!

Flight Controls
Rudder:mounted on vertical stabilizer. Controls movement about vertical axis, yaw.

Flight Controls
Flaps
Auxiliary Control Increase lift and drag High AoA Low Speed

Flight Controls
Flaps
Plain: trailing edge hinged Split: part of underside trailing edge splits and folds Slotted: forms slot between leading edge and flap well. Increases lift as air flows over flap. Fowler: extends on tracks. Increase wing area and camber

Flight Controls
Speed Brakes: Produce drag without affecting lift or pitching tendency. No rotation about axis.

Flight Controls
Winglets:Out-of-plane surface extending from lifting surface. Reduces wingtip vortex formation (and thus induced drag).

Flight Controls
Canard: Horizontal lifting control mounted in front of main lifting plane.

Landing Gear
Supports a/c when not flying
Provides shock absorption for landing.

Landing Gear
Some that didnt get the memo..

Landing Gear
Tricycle: Nose wheel and 2 mains Conventional: Tail-wheel and 2 mains Fixed: Landing remains in its position for all phases of flight Retractable: Landing gear may be retracted for certain phases of flight. (Not landing)

Forces of Flight

## Putting it all together!

Forces of Flight

Forces of Flight

Forces of Flight
Lift = Wings/airflow Weight = Aircraft Thrust = Powerplant / Propeller Drag = Bi - product if lift
Parasite: friction of air moving over structure, varied with speed Induced: Varies with speed. Force component parallel to free stream. Due to development of lift.

Forces of Flight
Di: Induced Drag
Di = (Cdi)(q)(S)
Di=induced drag, lbs q=dynamic pressure, psf Cdi=induced drag coefficient
Cl X sin Xangle I (induced)

S=wing area, sq ft. So here we see Di is a biproduct of Lift. Future engineers, this is for you! *Cl is the ratio between lift pressure and dynamic pressure

Forces of Flight
Airplane Axis Elevator = Lateral, Pitch Ailerons = Longitudinal, Roll Rudder = Vertical Yaw

Forces of Flight
Stability: Primary a/c design characteristic. Correct for conditions, return to equilibrium. Maneuverability: Quality which permits maneuvering and the corresponding stress loads Controllability: Response to pilot input.

Forces of Flight
Equilibrium: Balanced forces Static Stability: initial tendency after disturbance Positive static stability: initial tendency to return to equilibrium after disturbance. Negative static: initial tendency to continue away from equilibrium after disturbance Neutral Static stability: initial tendency to remain in new condition after disturbance

Forces of Flight
Dynamic vs Static Stability
Dynamic is the overall tendency while static is the initial tendency.
Yes it is that simple!

Forces of Flight
Therefore:
Longitudinal Axis is stabilized by wings (dihedral) Lateral Axis is stabilized by the negative lift of the tail.

ACTIVITY
4 GROUPS OF 5 Assign the following:
1pilot 1 l/r aileron (=2) 1 Rudder 1 Elevator

ACTIVITY
Show corresponding control movements at each location while (pick one):
Climbing Left Turn Climbing Right Turn Descending Left Turn Descending Right Turn Pilot will describe what is going on