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Presentation on

Cultivation practicas of sugercane & soybean crop.

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Botanical name: Saccharum officinarum, Order: Pales Family: Poaceae Subfamily: Panicoideae Tribe: Andropogoneae Genus: Saccharum
Origin of S.officinarum - Indo-Myanmar, China New Guinea.

World scenario
Currently, 69% of the world's sugar is consumed in its country of origin, while the rest is traded on international markets.

25% is traded internationally with the top three sugar exporting countries Brazil, Thailand and Australia account for almost 50% of world exports.
More than 50% of world ethanol production stems from sugar. Producing ethanol from sugar is more efficient than producing ethanol from corn. Brazil is the leader in this production process, using 60% of its sugar canes for ethanol.

Sugarcane In The world Production (2011)

Source :FAO 2010-11

India scenario of sugar industry

India grows sugar in 19 out of its 31 states. The industry size in terms of capital is more than Rs. 40,000 crore. Almost 50 million people depend on sugar industry for its livelihood. There are a total of 651 mills (as estimated in 2009-10) out of which 62 are public, 269 are privately owned and 320 are cooperatives. Some fact & figure: Area under Sugarcane: 3,329,000 hectares Average capacity of factory : 3500 Ton Per Day Molasses Production : 6,500,000 MT above Molasses Percentage : 4.4% Per capita Consumption of Sugar : 20 Kg Per capita Consumption of Jaggery : 5Kg The Total Cane Production: 12% will go in to Seed purpose and 5% goes to Chewing and Juice manufacturing. 25-30% will go in to Khandasari and Jaggery Production. Only 60% is being used for Sugar production

District profile
Kolhapur Region Information 1. Crushing Season:- 2010-2011 2. Number of Sugar Factories Total Installed:- 37 In Operation:- (a) Co-operative - 31 (b) Private - 4 3. Crushing Capacity ('000 TCD):- 115.450 4. Sugarcane Crushed ('000 tons):- 19556.216 5. Sugar Produced ('000 tons):- 2361.750 6. Recovery % Cane:- 12.09


Soil management:
A) I. Suitability of soil : Medium to fine textured, deep (depth > 1 m), rich in organic matter status, II. well drained, having pH between 6.5 to 8.0 are ideal for sugarcane crop. III. Growing sugarcane on coarse textured, shallow soils will result in poor yield

B) Preparatory tillage:
I. deep ploughing by iron mould board plough drawn by bullocks or tractor
I. Before last harrowing, recommended dose of organic manure is applied and mixed well with soil

Planting Time
Planting Harvesting

Seasonal (December to 15 February)

February to April

Pre-seasonal ( 15 October to 15 November)

Adsali (July August) Ratoon (Ratoon of cane harvested during October to February)

October to January

October to January November to April (depending upon maturity

Varieties for planting

CO 86032.

Resistant to smut and grassy shoot diseases, good ratooner, can sustain water stress, non-flowering Early maturity, moderately susceptible to smut, grassy shoot and stem borer. Resistant to smut and stem borer, good ratooner, low flowering, high sugar recovery.

CoC 671

CO 94012

Seed selection & seed rate

I. Sugarcane is propagated by cutting or selection of the stalks called sets. They Set should be: Fresh & juicy Age should be of 9 to 10 months. Eye buds should be fully developed. II. Single, two and three eye bud methods of planting are in practice About 25,000 two eye budded sets will be required to plant one hectare area.

Method of planting
I. Dry method of planting should be followed. Sets should be placed 5 to 7.5 cm deep into soil.
II. Care should be taken to place eye buds on side and covered. I. with thin layer of soil and then irrigation should be given to the field.

Soil type Method of irrigation surface Type Furrow spacing 90cm Method of placement of set Parallel to furrow Across the Spacing between two sets 22.5cm

Coarse to medium textured soils Fine textured soils


150 cm


Seed treatment
Sets should be dipped in 0.1% solution of Bavistin (10 g Bavistin in 10 litres of water) or Bayleton (0.05%) (5 g Bayleton in 10 litres of water) for 10 to 15 minutes.

To increase biological nitrogen fixation and solubility of phosphatic fertilizers,setts should be treated with Azatobacter and Phosphate solubilising inoculants. For one hectare area, dissolve 10 kg Azatobacter and 10 kg Psolubilising inoculant in 100 litres of water and dip sets for 10 15 minutes and then do planting after drying them in shade.

Nutrient management
A) Organic manures:
Organic manures @ 20 to 25 tonnes/ha(Farm Yard Manure/Compost/Dung Manure.) Sugarcane trash can be used as a mulch and sprayed with 80 kg urea, 100 kg Single Super Phosphate and 10 kg decomposing culture/ha for better decomposition Crops like sannhemp and dhaincha are grown as green manure crop. An age of 1.5 to 2 months (before flowering) followed by sugarcane crop. These can also be grown along with sugarcane by sowing in rows in between two rows of sugarcane and burring in soil at the time of earthing up. On an average, 20 tonnes of green matter and 90 kg nitrogen is added by growing green manure crop.

B)Fertilizer application
N:P:K kg/ ha. Time of application N At planting 50 Adsali P 100 K 100 Pre-seasonal N 40 P 85 K 85 N 35 Suru P 70 K 70

6-8 weeks after planting

12-16 weeks after planting At earthing Total







200 500

100 200

100 200

160 400

85 170

85 170

140 350

70 140

70 140

In soils deficient with micro nutrients like iron, zinc, manganese, copper, molybdenum and boron, in addition to above fertilizers. 25 kg Ferrous Sulphate, 20 kg Zinc Sulphate, 10 kg Manganese Sulphate, 10 kg Copper Sulphate 2.5 kg, Sodium Molybdate and 5 kg Borax
Micro nutrient fertilizers should be mixed with well decomposed dung manure or compost and applied as basal dose.

Different growth stages

Germination Tillering 15 to 30 day after planting 50 to 120 days

Grand growth phase


121to 210 days

210 to 365 days

Irrigation Water Management

Germination phase (0 - 35 days): Provide shallow wetting with 2 to 3 cm depth of water at shorter intervals especially for sandy soil for enhancing the germination. Sprinkler irrigation is the suitable method to satisfy the requirement, during initial stages. The irrigation intervals in each phase are given below:
Stages Day of irrigation interval Sandy soil Tillering phase (35100 days) Grand growt phase (101-270 days) 8 Clay soil 10


Maturity phase (271- harvest)



Intercultural and Weed Control

One to two hand weeding and one hoeing are given within 6 8 weeks after planting by which time first top dressing of nitrogen fertilizer is given. Before next nitrogen fertilizer application (12 16 weeks after planting), one more hand weeding followed by hoeing is usually necessary. By this time, first light earthing up takes place. Later on till final earthing up, one hoeing is again usually necessary.
Chemical control: Spraying of Atrazine @ 2 kg a.i./ha at pre emergence and 2,4-D sodium salt @ 1 kg a.i./ha at post emergence (8 to 10 weeks after planting) control weeds effectively.

Integrated Pest and Disease Management

A) Integrated pest management
I. Stem borer
Late planting of seasonal cane after February should be avoided. Removal of dead hearts and destruction of larvae with cycle spoke in small areas is feasible. Soil application of 6 G lindane (16.6 kg/ha) or 4:4 G Sevidol (25kg/ha)15 days after planting gives satisfactory control.

II. Woolly aphid

woolly aphid feed on sugarcane by inserting their stylets through the stomata of the plants leaves. Both nymphs and adults suck the cell sap from lower surface of leaves. They suck the sap from phloem. Foliar application of dimethoate 30 EC @ 0.05%, metasystox 25 EC @ 0.04%, acephate 75 SP @ 0.1% and endosulphan 35 EC @0.05%.

III. White grub Deep ploughing. Soil application of 10 G Phorate @ 25 kg/ha or 2% Methyl parathion dust @ 100 kg/ha.

B) Integrated disease management

I. Whip smut : Sett treatment with hot water treatment in combination with Bavistin 10 g or Bayleton 5 g, in 10 litres of water for 10 to 15 minutes. Rouging and burning of affected clumps . II. Grassy shoot disease Hot water treatment or moist air treatment followed by dipping of setts in Streptocycline or Tetracycline 1 g, in 10 litres of water for 10-15 minutes. III.Red rot The observable eye spot symptoms are minute, water soaked spots that occur on younger leaves. The spots become more elongated, resembling the shape of the eye and turns almost straw colored in a few days. Control measure : Foliar application 0.2% copper oxychloride or 0.3% Mancozeb with 2 to 3 sprayings at an interval of 10 to 15 days.

Maturity and Harvesting

Cane should be harvested only when it is mature. Practical tests to judge maturity are (a) general yellowish color of whole crop (b) cessation of growth (c) swelling of eye buds (d) metallic sound of cane (e) breaking of cane at the nodes and (f) Brix saccharometer reading between 21 and 24. Irrigation should be withheld for about 10 to 15 days prior to harvesting. The cane should be crushed within 24 hours to get high recovery.

Average yield of suru Av. Yield pre-seasonal crop Av. Yield adsali 100 t/ha 125 t/ha 150 t/ha.

Cost of cultivation
Land preparation

(Per acre) 4000

Cost (Rs) 6000


Manure & fertilizer

Labour (weeding + sowing)


Earthing up
Other Total Yield 55 tones Selling price- 2500/tones Total production 55*2500 101500 Gross income = 101500-37000 64500/-

3000 37000

B:C ratio =2.74

Botanical name Glycine max Family leguminosae Sub family- papilionoideae Origin- northern provinces of china & manchuria.

Protein soybean is the cheapest source of vegetable protein. Soybean with its 40% protein & 20% oil holds great promise in meeting this need. The protein quality of soybean is equivalent to that in meat ,milk product & eggs. As oil & Meal
soybean is worlds first rank crop as as source of vegetable oil. about 5 million tonnes of edible oil at the cost of Rs. 1000 crores in foreign exchange is being imported.

Agronomic & Economic significance:

soybean is able to leave residual N effect for succeeding crop equivalent to 35-40 Kg N/ha. soybean can work as good intercrop.

World production of soybean

State wise production (2011)

State Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Production lakh tones 55 35

Andhra Pradesh




Agronomic management
Land preparation & crop establishment one deep ploughing or disking followed by 2 harrowing. Time of sowing June last week to first week of July.

Planting pattern: Row to row 45cm Plant to plant 7-10cm Depth of planting seed depth 2.4 to 4.0 cm

Seed rate & varieties seed rate 70- 80 kg/ha. plant population 0.4 million.(recommended) Varieties Ankur, JS 335, JS 2, Gaurav, MACS 13, JS 75-46. Seed treatment with fungicides Treat the seeds with Carbendezim or Thiram @ 2g/kg of seed 24hrs before sowing or with talc formulation of Trichoderma viride @ 4 g/kg seed (or) Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 g/kg seed. First treat the seeds with biocontrol agents and then with Rhizobium.

Why fertilizer application necessary? Nitrogen N deficiency in soybean crop is manifested by pale green or yellow leaves. Phosphorus major role of in ATP-synthesis & metabolic process. nodule development & N2 fixation. Potassium for carbohydrate & nodule development it regulate stomatal function. Fertilizer management (kg/ha) N:P:K:S 20: 80: 40: 40

Water management 2-3 times Weed contol: Mechanical intercultivation Manual weeding 20-25 & 40-45 day. Use of herbicide: post emergence herbicide: Quizalofop-ethyl- @ 50gm/ha 25 day after sowing. Imazethaper - @75/ha at 15-20 day after sowing. Propaguizafop - @ 50g /ha at 15-20 day after sowing.

Integrated diseases management

Soybean mosaic : this is transmitted by several aphids. it is seed borne disease. Control measure: monocrotophos (.1%) solution recommended. Altenaria leaf spot brown necrotic leaf spots with concentric rings appear on all plants. Control measure: treat seed with thiram@ 2.0g carbendazim @1.0kg seed before sowing.

Insect management
White fly:
This is a serious pest of soybean. Adult are known to transmit yellow mosaic virus. Contol measure : spray metasystox 0.1% .

Gridle beetle:

petiole is girdled, the trifoliate leaves beging driyng around the edges. Control measure: soil application of phorate 10G . Folier spray of Quinolphos 25EC @1.25 1/ha.

Steam fly:

larvae start feeding on leaves and moves towards of the stem. The infected plants show partly dried & dropping leaves. contol measure: one spray of monocrotophos (.04%) within 7-10 days after germination.

Harvesting and yield

Harvesting indices: Soybean plants mature their start drooping. Pod are dried & moisture content 15-17% Maturity period ranges from 90to 140 days. Method Harvesting use of mechanical soybean thresher In large area holding use a combine harvester. Yield: 20-25 quintal/ ha.

Cost of cultivation
Item Cost (Rs)

(Per acre)

Land preparation
Seed Manure & fertilizer

1200 2000

Crop protection Labour (weeding + sowing + threshing) harvesting Other

1200 1350 700 1500

Yield 9 quintal Selling price- 2800/quintal Total production 9*2800 25200 Gross income = 25200-11450 13750


B:C ratio =1.8

Thank you.