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BIOLOGY FORM 4

CONTENTS
CHAPTER 1 : Introduction to Biology CHAPTER 2 : Cell Structure and Cell Organisation CHAPTER 3 : Movement of Substances Across the Plasma Membrane CHAPTER 4 : Chemical Composition of the cell CHAPTER 5 : Cell Division CHAPTER 6 : Nutrition CHAPTER 7 : Respiration CHAPTER 8 : Dynamic Ecosystem CHAPTER 9 : Endanger Ecosystem

CHAPTER 1 : Introduction to Biology


The word Biology comes from Greek words, Bios meaning Life and Logos meaning Knowledge. Biology is the scientific study of life The study of Biology is the study of living things, the environment and the interaction between living things and the enviroment

Importance of Biology. The study of Biology enable us to understand ourselves and our surrounding environment understand the interaction between living things and environment Appreciate and thankful for the diverse variaty of living things.

THE FIELDS OF STUDY IN BIOLOGY

Careers related to Biology


The knowledge of Biology is widely used in the: a. biotechnology biotechnological knowledge and techniques, use living organisms to develop useful products. b. Environmental engineering principles of biology & chemistry to provide solutions to environmental problem c. Health care radiographers, occupational therapists, pharmacist, physiotherapists, opticians & doctors d. Agriculture and forestry livestock farms, forest research institutes & plantations e. Marine and freshwater biology carry out research into fish farming and conversation of marine life

The Scientific Investigation


1. Scientific skills science process skills & manipulative skills 2. Science process skills critical, analytical & creative thinking skills which enable a scientist to formulate questions and find out the answers and explanations to a phenomena in a systematic manner 3. Manipulative skills psychomotor skills that enable scientist to carry out a scientific investigations

The Scientific Method

Identifying A Problem
1. a. i. ii. Determine the problem to be solved by: Observing the situation or phenomena Asking questions to explain the situation A possible explanation or inferences based on the past experience or prior knowledge iii. Inference not a fact, it is only the many possible interpretations derives from an observation

b. Indentifying the variables 2. The problem is the form of a question to be answered. The question in the problem should show the relationship between the manipulated variable and responding variable. 3. The problem stated is the basis for forming a hypothesis

Forming a hypothesis
1. A hypothesis is a smart guess or prediction to explain the problem 2. The hypothesis answers the question posed by a problem 3. It is a statement to explain the relationship between the manipulated variable and responding variable in the situation studied 4. This statement is tested in the experiment to determine its validity

Planning The Experiment


1. Plan an experiment to test the hypothesis 2. Determine the following steps in planning the experiment: a) Apparatus & materials to be used b) Techniques to be used c) Procedures to followed d) Types of measurements (data) to be taken e) Methods to take the measurements or collect the data f) Way of presenting the data (results)

3. Write out the design plan of the experiment. It should include the following aspects: a. Problem statement b. Aim of investigation c. Hypothesis d. Variables e. List of the apparatus & materials f. Technique used g. Experimental procedure or method h. Data to be collected i. Presentation of data j. Expected conclusion

Indentifying & Controlling Variables


1. The variables that have been indentified before forming the hypothesis have to be controlled during the experiment 2. To control the variables, the following have to be considered: a) Manipulated variable: How alter the manipulated variable in the experiment b) Responding variable: What to observe, measure and record in the responding variable c) Fixed/constant variable: How to maintain the controlled variable so that it is kept constant throughout the experiment

Conducting The Experiment


1. An experiment is carried out as planned to test the hypothesis 2. The following steps have to be observed during the experiment: a) The apparatus & materials are handled correctly, cleaned and stored safely b) The variables are well controlled c) The results are being collected and recorded carefully d) A control experiment is also set up

Collecting Data
1. The data is collected and recorded accurately 2. The data can be used on descriptive observations (qualitative data) or numbers and figures (quantitative data) 3. The data can be presented in the form of table, graph or diagrams

Analysing and Interpreting Data


1. Find a suitable explanation for what has been observed 2. Analyse the relationship between the manipulated variable and the responding variable 3. Look for pattern in the data 4. Think critically to explain the results clearly

Making Conclusion
1. Determine whether the data supports the hypothesis 2. Decide whether the hypothesis is valid 3. If the results support the hypothesis, then the hypothesis is accepted. If not, the hypothesis is rejected 4. Make a general statement about the results of the investigation, based on the hypothesis

Writing A Report
1. A complete report of the experiment is written according to the following format:

Scientific attitudes and noble values