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CHAPTER : VI LEADERSHIP AND MOTIVATION

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Leadership and motivation


Understanding individuals in organization
Click to edit Master subtitle style Internal factors External

Biological and psychological factors Age, sex, education

factors Environmental forces

Organizational structure Abilities, Marital status Management styles

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Personality ,perception, attitudes Beliefs, ability and learning

Working environment technology

definitions
George

R. Terry leadership is the activity of influencing people to strive willingly for mutual objectives. P. Robbins leadership is the ability to influence a group toward achievement of goals.

Stephen

and Weihrich leadership is the art of or process of influencing 2/12/13 people so that they will strive

Koontz

NATURE /CHARACTERISTICS OF LEADERSHIP


Process Leaders

of interpersonal influence and followers goals exercise in situational

Common

Continuous Leadership Rest

on power

of inspirations, motivation and communication 2/12/13

Blend

Functions of leadership
Goal

determination organizational activities the organization

Coordinate Represent Integrate Direct

objectives activities teamwork

and motivate staff

Organize

Encourage
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Communication

Styles of leadership
Autocratic

leadership leadership style ( father role)

Democratic Laissez-

faire or free rein leadership

Paternalistic

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APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP
Trait

Approach Approach

Behavioral

The Ohio State Studies University Of Michigan studies The Managerial Grid

q q q

Situational Approach Fiedler Model Path Goal Theory

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QUALITIES OF GOOD LEADERSHIP PERSONAL QUALITIES Physical fitness Self- confidence

MANAGERIAL QUALITIES Technical knowledge A moderate state of mind

Intelligence Vision and foresight

Sense of responsibility Human character Flexible attitude

Organizing Motivation and communication skills Human relation experts Wider perspective Ability of judgement

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MOTIVATION
As

noun motive means an objectives and as verb it means moving into action. is a force which leads people to act to fulfill objectives. the key to the management to achieve effective work performance from workers. is a psychological and is

Motivation Motivation

Motivation
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definition
William

G. Scott motivation means a process of stimulating people to action to achieve desired goals. S. Beach motivation can be defined as a willingness to work to expand energy to achieve a goal or reward.

Dale

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Features of motivation
Psychological Continuous Complex

process

process

and unpredictable function( responsible) the behavior on whole individual

Pervasive

Influences

Concentrated Positive
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or negative

Importance of motivation

Lead High Best

to profitable operation level of productivity

remedy for resistance to change use of human resource of employees disputes and strike

Effective

Satisfaction Minimizes
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Basis

of coordination

Motivation process
Needs:

(physiological and psychological) (action oriented) (fulfill need and reduce

Drives:

Incentives:

drive)
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Fig..

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Fig..

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Theories of motivation
Need

hierarchy theory

Two

factor/hygiene theory

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Reward system to motivate performance


Extrinsic

and intrinsic reward

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Essentials of effective reward


Satisfy Effort

needs reward

reward relation

Equitable Cost

effective of reward and methods

Variety

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Techniques for improving employee motivation


Financial

incentives of authority

Participation Delegation Job Job Job Job


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security rotation enrichment enlargement

Reinforcement

Motivation through employee participation


Participatory

management is a method in which the employees are involved in every function of management.

They are empowered. Employees are made involved in management by making owner, giving autonomy and providing change to take participation in decision making process. 2/12/13

Cont..

two

techniques to encourage and empower the employees. of working life managed team

Quality Self

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Cont..

(A) Quality of working life


QWl

indicates the relationship of quality between total work environment and the employees. the quality of working life of employees is good, they become satisfied and hardworking or get motivated to work.

If

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Cont..

Sufficient

and reasonable remuneration, healthy and safety environment to give personal identity, opportunity for persona development and security, opportunity for human competence development etc. are as a whole the working environment.

They are called quality working life. If 2/12/13 the QWl is good the employees

Cont..

For

this the mechanism such as share ownership, flexible working hour, quality control team etc should be organized and activated.

ownership...The employee can be involved in management by providing share ownership. Doing so the employees link the organization to be tier own, they become dedicated to the organization and 2/12/13

Share

Cont..

Flexible

working time....Two types of working table can be used. The first fixed time working and second flexible working time. The working time from 9 am to 4 pm is called fix time working.

circle...The team formed to solve production problems and improve quality of goods is called quality circle(QC). QC is a small 2/12/13

Quality

Cont..

(B) Self managed team: The tea formed without formal supervision is called self managed team.

The leadership of such team is held on the basis of personal charisma. The member of the team work with discipline and become goal oriented.

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Cont..

They

have high morale. They utilize the freedom to use to show their ability. Self managed team are a group of 10 to 15 employees.

They have responsibility of planning and scheduling of work, task assignment to members, taking action to solve problems, decision 2/12/13 making about operation and

The characteristics of such team are....


The The The

team becomes responsibility for the whole work. member becomes gifted with various qualities and skills. authority to determine working procedure, making work routine, handing over work etc lies with such team. performance of the team is

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The