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Lubricants

&
Greases
By A.Antony Peter
Lubricant
 Functions
 Environmental Issues in Changing Oils
 Oil Additive Usage
 Right Viscosity
 New 5W20 Weight Oils
 Switch to Synthetics
 Oil Life Monitoring
Lubricants
 Synthetic Oils & Leaky Seals
 Extended Drains
 API Ratings
 Too Dirty
 Overfilling Effects
 Engine Flush Products
 ALL of Tranny Fluid gets changed
 Rotary Engines – Synthetic Oils
Lubricants
Engines

• High Eng
•More Powerful Temp
• Less Sump
•More Efficient
Capacity
Functions
 Lubricate
 Less Loss of Power
 Protect through Thin Film
 From Metal to Metal Contact
 From Corrosion by Acid Formation
i. Oxidation & Condensation of Oil
ii. Condensation of By Products
Functions
 Dispersant
 Washing away the Particles
 Clean
 To be Filter out Particles < 20 µ
 Cool
 Combustion - Passing away Hot Components
viz Cr Shaft, Cam Shaft, TGs, Piston, M&BE
Brg, etc.
 Heat from Friction
Main Components
 Base Fluid
 Bulk of the Oil
 Additive Package
 To Enhance Positive Quality of Base
Stock
Base Fluid
I. Petroleum
 Refined from Crude Oil
II. Synthetic
 Chemically Engineered in Labs
 No Contaminants (Removed via
Purification)
Petroleum Base
Crude refined for ….
Viscosity Index
 The viscosity of an oil refers to its relative
resistance to flow at differing temperatures
 Ability to maintain Viscosity over Wide Temp
Range. High the number Lesser the Change
Low Temp Performance
 Better Flow in Low Temp
 Eng Protection at Start-Up in Cold Weather
Condition
Petroleum Base
Crude refined for ….

 High Temp Performance


 More Effective at Extreme Hot
 Burn Resistant
 Metal to Metal Contact – Viscosity Loss
 Oxidation Resistant
 Oxygen when Reacts with Oil forms
Sludge & Other Eng Deposits
 Results in Viscosity Increase – Low Oil
Flow
Petroleum Base
Crude refining Process ….

 Desalting
 Removing the Salt Contamination
 Partial Vapourisation
 To remove Differing Boiling Point
Components
 To contain High Boiling Point
Components except Asphaltic
Materials
Petroleum Base
Crude refining Process ….
 Vacuum Distillation
 Separated for Differing Molecular
Weights
 Differing Viscosity Index
 Solvent Extraction
 To extract Aromatic Compounds (80%
Extcd)
 To Improve
 Thermal & Oxidative Stability
 Viscosity Index
Petroleum Base
Crude refining Process ….

 Dewaxing
 Low temp Fluidity
 Hydrofinishing / Clay Treatment
 To remove Unstable Components viz
Sulphur & Nitrogen
 To Improve Oxidation Stability, Thermal
Stability & Colour
Petroleum Base
Crude refining Process ….

 Hydroheating
 99% removal of Aromatic Components
 Used in Place of Solvent Extraction
and/or in Addition to Solvent Extraction
Petroleum Base
Quality
 Depends on Crude Oil Selection

 Tremendous Care to be Exercised in


Selecting Crude Oil Stock
Pseudo – Synthetic Base Stocks
Petroleum Base Stocks put through
Super Extreme refining process called
Hydrocracking
Hydrocracking involves in Breaking &
Fragmenting different Molecular
Structures into far more stable one
Better Oxidative & Thermal Stability
Better Viscosity Index
Synthetic Base Stocks
Polyalphaolefins (PAO's)
Diesters
Polyolesters
Polyalphaolefins (PAO's)
These are the most common synthetic
basestocks used in the US and in
Europe.
PAO's are also called synthesized
hydrocarbons and contain absolutely
no wax, metals, sulfur or phosphorous.
Viscosity indexes for nearly all PAO's
are around 150, and they have
extremely low pour points (normally
below -40 degrees F)
Polyalphaolefins (PAO's)
Disadvantages
 Although PAO's are also very thermally
stable, they are not as oxidatively stable as
other synthetics.
 when properly additized, oxidative stability
can be achieved.
 PAO's also tend to shrink seals
Quality
 Their final lubricating characteristics depend
on the chemical reactions used to create
them.
Diesters
 Less commonly used
 If chosen carefully, Diesters generally
provide better pour points than PAO's
(about -60 to -80 degrees F)
 A little more oxidatively stable when
properly additized.
 Diesters also have very good solvency
characteristics even without the aid of
detergency additives.
Diesters
Advantage
 Like PAO's, Diesters can affect seals.
However, they generally cause seal
swell
 Chemically resistant seals are
recommended if using synthetic base
oils manufactured with diesters.
Polyolesters
 Similar to Diesters, but slightly more
complex

Advantages over Diesters


 Greater range of pour points as low as -90
degrees F
 Viscosity indexes as high as 160 (without VI
additive improvers)

 The same seal swell characteristics exist


with polyolesters as with diesters.
Chemical Additives
Each chemical within an oils additive
package plays a different role in
boosting the beneficial properties of
it's host lubricant (basestock)
Chemical Additives
IMPROVE VISCOSITY
CHARACTERISTICS (VC)
Pour Point Depressants
Viscosity Index Improvers
Chemical Additives – (VC)
Pour Point Depressants
 To improve the flow characteristics of
a lubricant basestock at low
temperatures
 They are normally only used in
conjunction with petroleum basestock
lubricants
 The only exception might be
hydrocracked petroleum basestocks
Chemical Additives – (VC)
Viscosity Index Improvers
 So, as the basestock loses viscosity
with increases in temperature, VI
improvers
 negate that viscosity drop by
increasing their size.
Chemical Additives
MAINTAIN LUBRICANT STABILITY (LS)
 They are susceptible to breakdown due
to contamination and/or oxidation
which decreases the useful life of an
oil.
 Additives are used to inhibit the
susceptibility
Chemical Additives
MAINTAIN LUBRICANT STABILITY
Detergents and Dispersants
Anti-Foaming Agents
Oxidation Inhibitors
Corrosion Inhibitors
Anti-Wear Agents
Chemical Additives – (LS)
Detergents and Dispersants
Attracted to sludge and varnish
contaminants
Contain and suspend those particles
so that they do not come together to
form deposits.
Chemical Additives – (LS)
Detergents and Dispersants
Detergents are all metallic in nature.
Ashless dispersants are more effective
at controlling sludge and varnish
contamination
Ashless dispersants are actually long
chain polymers that serve a dual
purpose as VI improvers in multi-grade
oils.
Chemical Additives – (LS)
Anti-Foaming Agents
 Detergents and dispersants can have a
negative effect of oil foaming.
 These air bubbles will reduce the
lubricating qualities of the motor oil.
 Anti-foaming agents such as small
amounts of silicone or other compounds
are used to control
Chemical Additives – (LS)
Oxidation Inhibitors
 They are also called antioxidants
 Oxidation inhibitors are additives that
manage to reduce the tendency of an
oil to oxidize (chemically react with
oxygen)
Chemical Additives – (LS)
Corrosion Inhibitors
 Antioxidants prevent the acids caused
by oxidation, they do nothing to
neutralize the acids caused by
combustion by-products
Chemical Additives – (LS)
Corrosion Inhibitors
 To protect non-ferrous metals by
coating them so they cannot come in
contact with acids within the oil.
 To actually neutralize the acids within
the oil. The acid neutralizing capability
of an oil is expressed by its Total
Base Number (TBN)
Chemical Additives – (LS)
Corrosion Inhibitors
For Diesel engines these oils generally
have TBN between 9 and 14. Gasoline
oil TBN levels are normally lower at 5 to
8. Generally, higher quality oils and/or
those that are designed for longer drain
intervals will have higher TBN numbers
Chemical Additives – (LS)
Anti-Wear Agents
 Anti-wear additives are used to minimize the
engine component wear
 Engines may have very little lubricant
protection at start-up. This is especially true
in cold conditions.
 Additives such as zinc and phosphorus will
actually coat metal surfaces forming a
protective barrier against wear.
 They do not eliminate the metal to metal
contact. They simply minimize the wear that
occurs during those instances.
 zinc and phosphorus come as a package
called ZDDP (zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate).
They work together.
Chemical Additives – (LS)
Anti-Wear Agents
 Anti-wear additives are used to minimize the
engine component wear
 Engines may have very little lubricant
protection at start-up. This is especially true
in cold conditions.
 Additives such as zinc and phosphorus will
actually coat metal surfaces forming a
protective barrier against wear.
 They do not eliminate the metal to metal
contact. They simply minimize the wear that
occurs during those instances.
 zinc and phosphorus come as a package
called ZDDP (zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate).
They work together.
Mono-Grade Oil
 Viscosity as per SAE J300 standards
 an oil is heated to 100 degrees C (212
degrees F)
 It's kinematic viscosity at this
temperature is measured.
 If it falls within a certain range it is
classified as a particular viscosity
 For instance, an SAE 30 oil must have a
kinematic viscosity at 100 degrees C of
between 9.3 and 12.5 cSt (centistokes).
Multi-Grade Oil
5W30
 In the last number - the "30" in 5w30
indicates
 the kinematic viscosity of a 5w30 multi-
viscosity oil falls within the same range
at 100 degrees C as a monograde SAE
30 weight oil does.
Multi-Grade Oil
5W40 Vs 10W40
 Think of the "W" as a "winter" classification
instead of a "weight" classification.
 5w30 motor oil will be thinner than a
10w30 motor oil
 when subjected to the same low
temperature conditions because the
"W" number is lower
 This is an indication of better cold
weather performance.
Multi-Grade Oil
0W Vs 5W (Lower cP better)
0W grade oil
 Maximum CCS centipoise (cP) value of 3250 @
-30 degrees C
 Maximum MRV cP of 60,000 @ -40 degrees C.
A 5W grade oil
 Maximum CCS cP value of 3500 @ -25 degree
C
 Maximum MRV cP of 60,000 @ -30 degrees C
Multi-Grade Oil - Problems
 Unfortunately, long chain polymers (VI
improvers) are more unstable
 In turn, over a short period of time, a
5w30 petroleum oil may actually "shear
back" to a 5w20 (or lower) as these
polymers break down
 This can lead to a decrease in engine
protection
Multi-Grade Oil - Problems
 For this reason the SAE J300 describes
another requirement that a multi-viscosity oil
must meet in order to be given its multi-
viscosity classification
 It must maintain a certain cP level on the
High Temperature/High Shear (HT/HS) test
(ASTM D 4683)
 The higher the HT/HS number the better
because this indicates less shearing
Multi-Grade Oil - Solution
Not all multi-viscosity oils shear back
so easily
The result is that very little shearing
occurs within synthetic oils will
generally have significantly higher
HT/HS numbers
Oil remains "in grade" for a much
longer period of time for better engine
protection and longer oil life.
Multi-Grade Oil - Spec
 16 useful specifications on the
technical data sheet for any given
oil. These include:
I. Kinematic Viscosity @ 100 degrees C (ASTM
D-445)
II. Kinematic Viscosity @ 40 degrees C (ASTM
D-445)
III. Viscosity Index (VI) (ASTM D-2270)
IV. Cold Crank Simulator Apparent Viscosity
(ASTM D-2602 or 5293)
Multi-Grade Oil - Spec
I. Mini-Rotary Viscometer (ASTM D-4684)
II. Borderline Pumping Temperature (ASTM D-3829)
III. Pour Point (ASTM D-97)
IV. Flash Point (ASTM D-92)
V. Fire Point (ASTM D-92)
VI. NOACK Volatility (DIN 51581)
VII. High Temperature/High Sheer Viscosity (ASTM D-
4683)
VIII. Four Ball Wear Test
IX. Total Base Number (TBN) (ASTM D-2896)
Multi-Grade Oil - Spec
I. Phosphorus % or PPM
II. Zinc % or PPM
III. Sulfated Ash Content
Multi-Grade Oil - CCS
 The Cold Crank Simulator measures the
"startability" of an oil by measuring the
speed at which a shaft can turn within an oil
that is cooled to a certain temperature
 When reading CCS numbers be careful
not to assume that the score is a
measurement of the speed of rotation of
the shaft
 The lower score on the CCS test is the
better
Multi-Grade Oil - CCS
 This is important when comparing two oils a
judgement call as to which is the better oil
for cold temperature operation
 An oil that scores a 3250 at -25 degrees C is
probably better than
 An oil that scores a 3200 at -20 degrees C
 Even though the CCS score is lower for the
second oil, it was tested at a temperature 5
degrees warmer than the first oil. That can
make a huge difference
Multi-Grade Oil - MRV
 Mini-Rotary Viscometer (MRV) tests the
pumpability of the oil. In other words, how
easily will the oil flow through the engine
instead of how easily will engine
components turn through the oil.
 This test is a companion to the CCS test
 The combination of the results of both
of these tests determine whether an oil
is classified with a certain "W" rating
 A lower cP value on the MRV is better.
Multi-Grade Oil - PP
 The Pour Point of an oil is
 A temperature 5 degrees F above the
temperature at which an oil shows no
movement when its container is inclined for 5
seconds
 the lowest temperature at which an oil will
actually flow
 This does not mean that it would easily pump
through an engine at this temperature - just
that the oil still acts somewhat like a liquid at
this temperature.
Multi-Grade Oil - BPT
 Borderline Pumping Temperature of an
oil is the lowest temperature at which it
will adequately flow through your
engine to provide the necessary
lubrication and protection.
 For instance, those living in northern
climates might want an oil with a
borderline pumping temperature of -20
degrees F or lower.
Multi-Grade Oil - FP
 Flash Point of an oil is the temperature at
which the oil vaporizes enough for the gas to
become momentarily flammable in the
presence of a small flame
 In today's modern engines a flash point under
400 degrees F is unacceptable
 Flash point of at least 420 degrees F if you
want the good stuff
 A good quality synthetic should be
significantly higher than this.
Multi-Grade Oil - FP
Fire Point is
 Similar to flash point
 This test determines the point at which
an oil gives off enough vapor to provide
a continuous flame as opposed to a
momentary one
 Expect a fire point of at least
 420 to 450 degrees for petroleum oils
 Near or over 500 for a synthetic oil.
Multi-Grade Oil - TBN
 Total Base Number
 An oil is a relative indication
 How well it can neutralize acid
build-up within an oil
 How long it can do it
 The higher the number the better
equipped an oil is to neutralize
acids
 from condensation
 oxidation processes
 combustion by-products.
Multi-Grade Oil – HT/HS

High-Temperature/High-Shear test
 Hoping for the least loss of viscosity with
an increase in heat and stress the cP
value to remain high
 An oil must achieve an HT/HS cP value of
3.7 or higher in order to be classified at
the 15w40 viscosity grade.
Multi-Grade Oil - Noack

 Noack Volatility Test (DIN 51581) is designed to


determine the amount of evaporation that will
occur over the course of High Temp in one hour
time period
 The NOACK test exposes an oil to a high
temperature environment of 250 degrees C
for one hour
 Diesel oils must have a NOACK score of
17% or lower to meet API CH-4 standards.
Multi-Grade Oil - Noack

 For instance, an SAE 30 will evaporate


more quickly than an SAE 60 motor oil
 0w30 will evaporate more quickly than a
10w30
 The difference may not be much, but there
will almost certainly be a difference.
Multi-Grade Oil - FBW

Four Ball Wear Test method


 Covers a procedure for making a
preliminary evaluation of
 The anti-wear properties of fluid
lubricants
 in sliding contact by means of the
Four-Ball Wear Test Machine
Multi-Grade Oil - FBW

It is performed by rotating one ball


bearing on three fixed bearings
 The motor oil is used to form a film
between the bearings
 The test can be done at a variety of
 temperatures
 pressures and RPM.
Multi-Grade Oil - FBW
 Some tests will be done by placing
more stress on the lubricant
 40 kg of pressure, 75 degrees C and 1200
RPM
 60 kg of pressure, 150 degrees C and 1800
RPM
 At the end of the test, the wear scar is
measured
 on each of the three stationary balls
 averaged for a final "wear scar
measurement" in millimeters
Multi-Grade Oil - FBW

The smaller this number, the better


an oil will protect an engine at any
point of sliding contact.
Multi-Grade Oil - Spec

The most commonly found specs


I. kinematic viscosity at 100 degrees
and 40 degrees C
II. VI (viscosity index)
III. Cold crank simulator apparent
viscosity
IV. Mini-rotary Viscometer
V. pour point
Multi-Grade Oil - Spec

I. pumping temperature
II. Flash point
III. Fire point
IV. TBN
V. Borderline
VI. High temperature / High shear
Multi-Grade Oil - Spec

 There are five main areas where


synthetic oils surpass their
petroleum counterparts:
 Oil drains can be extended
 Vehicle life can be extended
 Costly repairs can be reduced
 Fuel mileage can be improved
 Performance can be improved
Multi-Grade Oil - Spec
GASOLINE SPECIFICATIONS
Gasoline motor oil if it begins with an
“S” some second letter after it is a
specification for a gasoline motor oil
SJ, SH, SG, SF and so on
 Best specification is look for the one
that has the "highest" second letter
 In other words, the most current - most
stringent, specification is the API SL
rating.
Multi-Grade Oil - Spec

GASOLINE SPECIFICATIONS
All API ratings are backward
compatible
 Therefore, an SJ rated oil will be just
fine for an SH, SG or SF rated vehicle
 However, on a newer vehicle that
calls for an SJ rated oil
 It is not recommended that you use
an oil of SF, SG or SH Grade
Multi-Grade Oil - Spec
DIESEL SPECIFICATIONS
 Any specification that begins with a C is an
API motor oil rating for diesel powered
engines
 CD, CF, CG, CH, CH-4 and so on are all diesel
oil ratings
 The higher the second letter, the better the oil
(meets more stringent API requirements)
 Also, when a number follows the letter
specification, it is a reference to whether the
engine is a 4 cycle or 2 cycle specification
Multi-Grade Oil - Spec
DIESEL SPECIFICATIONS
Motor oil specs are backward
compatible
 A CH oil will be just fine if manual calls
for a CF rated oil
The specifications are not forward
compatible
 Don't use an oil that only meets the CF
spec in an engine that calls for a CH
spec oil
Multi-Grade Oil - Spec
GEAR LUBES & DIFFERENTIALS
For the differential
 To translate power from the driveshaft to the
wheels
 The gears within the differential must operate
at a severe angle to each other
 results in high loads on small areas of
the gears
 In many cases there will not be a full
lubricating film separating the gears
Multi-Grade Oil - Spec
 Maintaining proper protection within this
type of environment requires that can
 stand up to the extreme temperature
and pressure generated within your
differential
 without breaking down too quickly
 able to properly lubricate, protect and
cool
 Carrying wear debris away from the
gears.
Multi-Grade Oil - Spec
RANKING SCORES
The oils are all assigned a "ranking
score“
 Within each viscosity grade
 The oils are listed in order from highest
ranking score to lowest ranking score
VI + Flash + (20 x HT/HS) + (2 x TBN) -
(Pour Point) - (3 x NOACK)= Ranking
Score
Lube Oil - Engines
Oil Spec
Before BS-I BS-II BS-III
CF4 – CG4 – CH4 –
Spec 20W40
15W40 15W40 15W40
For AL
For Turbo Engine
Drain
16000 10000 Kms 16000 20000
Perio Kms
For NA Kms For NA
d
16000 Kms 32000
Kms
Lube Oil – Gear Box
Constant Synchro
Mesh Mesh
XP 90
Spec HP 90 With Anglamol
99
Drain
36000 Kms 36000 Kms
Period
Lube Oil – Rear Axle
Spiral
Hypoid
Bevel
85W140
Spec HP 140
With Anglamol 99
Drain
24000 Kms 36000 Kms
Period
FUNDAMENTALS OF
GREASES
COMPONENTS

The components of a Grease are:


– Base Oil. (70% - 95%)
• Mineral or Synthetic.

– Thickener (soap or non soap)


• Metallic or non metallic i.e. clay).

– Additives.
• Bring up, Improve and give special
properties to the grease.
GREASES

• Man’s oldest and most widely


applied lubricant
• Originally- Tallow Rendered From
Animal Fat
• Today- Complex Blends Of Oils,
Thickeners, Other Additives, Etc
GREASE- DEFINITION

A Solid To Semi-fluid Product of a


Dispersion of a Thickening Agent in
a Liquid Lubricant. Other Ingredients
are Added Which Impart Special
Properties.
GREASE- USAGE

• Greases are generally used instead


of oil where:
• A lubricant must act as a seal to
prevent entry of contaminants
• A lubricant must maintain its
position in a mechanism
( relubrication limited or impossible)
GREASE – DESIRABLE
PROPERTIES

• Reduce Friction and Wear


• Protect against rust and corrosion
• Prevent dirt, water, and other
contaminants from entering the parts
being lubricated
• Resist leakage, dripping, and throwoff
• Maintain structure and consistency during
long periods of use
GREASE – DESIRABLE
PROPERTIES (Contd.)

• Be compatible with elastomer seals


and other materials associated with
the parts being lubricated
• Tolerate some degree of moisture
contamination without significant
loss of performance
GREASES- COMPONENTS

• Thickeners- Transform Oil into Grease


(Simple metal soaps, complex soaps, etc.)
• Soaps- Salt of a Fatty Acid
• Metal Soaps- Obtained from the reaction
of an alkali base of animal or vegetable
origin and a metallic component (
lithium, calcium, sodium, etc.)
GREASE- TYPES

• According to the type of Thickener


which they contain. E.g. Calcium
soap base grease, Calcium Complex
grease, Sodium Base Grease,
Lithium Base Grease, , Polyurea
Grease, etc.
GREASE THICKENER-ROLE

The role of the thickening


agents is similar to a sponge,
it’s function is to retain ADDITIVES

the lubricating oil to liberateTHICKENER


BASE OIL

it bit by bit, in accordance


to the neccesities of GREASE
the elements. OIL
GREASES- IMPORTANT PROPERTIES

• Penetration- Arbitary measure of


grease hardness ranging from semi-
fluid to hard block greases.
Classified as per NLGI Consistency
No. :000 (very fluid) to 6 (very hard)
• Dropping Point- The temperature at
which the grease passes from semi-
solid to liquid state
GREASES- IMPORTANT PROPERTIES
(Contd.)

• Load Carrying Capacity- Refers to


the EP protection afforded by a
grease
• Rust and Corrosion Protection-
Corrosion Preventive properties of
greases under wet conditions
GREASES- TYPES
LITHIUM BASE
• Are of smoothery-buttery texture.
••Are of smoothery-buttery
Resistance to water wash-out.
•texture.
Great pumpeability at low temperatures.
••Resistance to water
Great mechanical wash-out.
stability.
•Good pumpability at low
•temperatures.
Applications:
– Multipurpose
•Good mechanicalGrease. (Automotive &
stability.
Industrial)
Applications:
– Bearings and small electric gears.
––Multipurpose
Centralized systems where humidity is
Grease.
present.
(Automotive & Industrial)
–Bearings and small electric
gears.
GREASES- TYPES
NON SOAP THICKENER
• The metallic soap is substituted by
• a thickener which commonly
• Is bentonite.
• Characteristics:
 They have great resistance to
 water wash out.
 Very stable at high temperatures.
 Mechanical Stability.
Future Grease Trends

• Decline in demand for calcium & sodium


base greases
• Increase in demand for Lithium base greases
• Development of new types of greases like
Aluminium complex, lithium complex &
polyurea greases and its constant growth.
These are the developments that have taken
place to meet the stringent requirements of
the Industry
Future requirements

• The following are the market drivers


– The first and probably the most important market
driver is Grease Economics
– The second is extended life. This needs improved
durability & oxidation stability
– Third driver is comprised of environmental social
issues and concerns which will require the usage
of additives which are ash-less or heavy metal free
– The usage of non- leaded greases will be
mandated although Lead which is a very good
Extreme Pressure agent, is an environmental
hazard
GREASES- TROUBLE SHOOTING ( BEARINGS)
Symptom Possible Cause Check for
Excessive noise Condition of bearing Worn bearing
Overheating Over greasing Too frequent
application. Bearing
packed too full
Starvation Insufficient
application frequency
Incorrect product Deficient load-
carrying ability (EP
Excessive lubricant Seals quality)
Mechanical damage
leakage Excessive shrinkage
or swelling
Incorrect installation.
Symptom Possible Cause Check for
Incorrect NLGI grade Grease too soft for
application or
softening in service
Incompatibility Admixture of greases

Frequent bearing Excessive wear Lack of load-carrying


replacement ability (EP of grease
to handle shock
loading)
Starvation
Contamination,dirt,rus
t,water
Normal bearing life
exceeded
Misalignment Incorrect NLGI grade
Correct Alignment
GULF OIL INTERNATIONAL

USED OIL ANALYSIS


The Human Body Parallel to Machine
Maintenance
Maintenance Technique Human body
Strategy needed parallel
Proactive Monitoring and Cholesterol and
Maintenance correction of failure blood pressure
root causes, eg., monitoring with
contamination diet control

Predictive Monitoring of Detection of heart


Maintenance vibration, wear disease using ECG
debris or ultrasonics

Preventive Periodic component By-pass or


Maintenance replacement transplant surgery

Breakdown Large maintenance Heart attack or


Maintenance budget stroke
Which contaminant causes the most
problem?

Dirt 37%
Water 24%
Water particles 9%
Rust & corrosion products 7%
Process chemicals 5%
Air (foam and air entrainment) 5%
Biological growth 5%
Other 8%
WHY TEST LUBRICANTS?

• To ascertain whether the right oil is being used


• To ensure that the equipment/ machinery is
clean and in good shape
• To establish effectiveness of maintenance
practices
• To ward off major mishaps & break downs
• To guarantee longer service life for both
lubricant and machine
WHEN TO TEST?

• Before Charging – To ensure lubricant as per


the specified standards is being charged
• After Charging - To ensure proper flushing
and rule out contaminants; Base/ Reference
Sample
• In Service – Routine condition monitoring, To
assess deterioration
• Investigation – When abrupt changes in
colour, clarity and odour is observed
HOW TO TEST?

• LUBRICANT TESTS CAN BE :


• On Site
– Sensory Tests
– Test Kits
• Laboratory – Physico-Chemical Tests
– Primary Tests
– Secondary Tests
• Laboratory - Spectrographic Analysis
WHAT TO TEST?

• ON SITE SENSORY TESTS


• Appearance – Clarity, Impurities, Foaming
• Colour – Oxidation, Contamination
• Odour – Oxidation, Contamination
• Crackle Test – Water content
• Blotter Spot Test – Deterioration in use
WHAT TO TEST?

• ROUTINE LABORATORY TESTS


• Specific Gravity
• Viscosity – at 40 Deg. C & 100 Deg. C
• Flash Point
• Neutralisation Value – TAN/TBN
• Water Content
• Insolubles – Pentane & Toluene
• Elemental/Wear Metal Analysis
INTERPRETATION OF TEST
RESULTS
• After any evaluation, the questions asked are :
– What is the condition now?
– How much has changed from new?
– What is the rate of change now?
– What condition is acceptable?
– What are the critical parameters/features
identified and why?
CONTAMINATION

DEGRADATION •WATER

OF LUBRICANT CONSUMPTION OF •DUST


ADDITIVES •WEAR PARTICLES
•OTHER
• SLUDGE
FORMATION
•ACID VALUE INCREASE
•REDUCTION OF
SURFACE TENSION LIMIT TO USE OF
LUBRICANT

TROUBLES

• INCREASE OF WEAR/CORROSION
• INCREASE OF FRICTION
• PLUGGING OF FILTER
• FOAMING
• CAVITATION
• PITTING
• SEIZURE
Problems Related to Oil Performance Potential Effect
Noisy Stuck Stuck Clogge High Oil Power High Poor Catas- Reduce
Operation Oil Rings d Oil Consumptio Loss Emissio Fuel Traphi d
Pump Passag n n Econom c Engine
Valve es y Failure Life
/Lifter

Rust

Varnish

Sludge

Viscosit
y
Increase
Wear

Carbon

Scuffing
DEGRADATION OF ENGINE OIL
CAUSES OF CHANGE OF ENGINE EXPECTED
DEGRADATION OIL PROPERTIES TROBULE
OIL DEGRADATION INCREASE OF RING STICKING
• OXIDATION VISCOSITY/ACID NUMBER CLOGGING OF OIL PASSAGE
• NITRATION
INCREASE OF INSOLUBLES INCREASE OF CORROSION/
• CONDENSATION
DEPOSITS
POLYMERIZATION
• CONSUMPTION OF DECREASE OF TOTAL BASE INCREASE OF CORROSION
NUMBER WEAR/
ADDITIVES
DEPOSITS
VISCOSITY DECREASE INCREASE OF WEAR
CONTAMINATION INCREASE OF ACID NUMBER INCREASE OF CORROSION/
• COMBUSTION DECREASE OF TOTAL BASE DEPOSITS
PRODUCTS NUMBER
(ORGANIC ACIDS, INCREASE OF CLOGGING OF OIL PASSAGE
WATER SULFONIC INSOLUBLES/WATER CONTENT OIL EMULSIFICATION
ACID,SOOT)

FUEL DILUTION VISCOSITY DECREASE INCREASE OF WEAR

WEAR PARTICLES INCREASE OF FE,AL,CU,ETC ACCELERATION OF OIL


DEGRADATION/INCREASEOF
WEAR

DUST INCREASE OF INSOLUBLES/ INCREASE OF WEAR


SILICON
CONTAMINANTS
Contamina Origin Effect
nt
Water Condensatio Corrosion
n Hydrolysis
Leakage
Solids System Wear
Debris Deposits
Common
Wear Viscosity
Lube Oil
Particles Increase
Contaminant
Soot
s
Fuel Leakage Low Flash
Poor Low or High
combustion Viscosity
Strong Acids Fuel Sulfur Insoluble
Corrosion
(Diesel
Engines)
USED OIL ANALYSIS - TESTS
INDUSTRIAL OIL AUTOMOTIVE OIL

WATER CONTENT WATER CONTENT


VISCOSITY AT 400C VISCOSITY AT 1000C
TOTAL INSOLUBLES TOTAL INSOLUBLES
FLASH FLASH POINT
TAN TBN/TAN
WEAR METAL ANALYSIS WEAR METAL ANALYSIS
USED OIL ANALYSIS - TESTS
Diesel Turbines Hydraulic Gear Compre
Engine Systems Boxes ssors/
Pumps
Water X X X X X

Flash Point X

Viscosity X X X X X
Selecte
d TAN X
Tests
TBN X

Pentane X X X X
Insolubles
Filter X
Residue
Wear Metals 0 X Routine 0 Optional
RECOMMENDED ACTION UNITS FOR USED
ENGINE
GASOLINE
OIL TESTS
AUTOMOTIVE MARINE TRUNK-TYPE
ENGINES DIESEL ENGINES DIESEL ENGINE

APPEARANCE AND ODOUR


NO NUMERICAL LIMITS – INTERPRETED BY OBSERVER
BLOTTER SPOT TEST

VISCOSITY INCREASE @1000C % MAX 35 25 25


VISCOSITY DECREASE 25 25 25
@ 1000C
FLASH POINT, OC <160 <180 <180
WATER, VOL % MAX 0.3 0.3 0.5

TOTAL INSOLUBLES 1.5 1.5 2.5


% MAX
TBN (MIN) - 50% OF NEW OIL 50% OF NEW OIL
WEAR METAL, PPM MAX
IRON 100 100 100
ALUMINIUM 40 40 40
CHROMIUM 40 40 40
COPPER 40 40 40
LEAD - 100 100
SILICON 20 20 20
TIN 40 40 -
SAMPLING PROCEDURE

DO - Use only clean, dry containers as supplied.


- Always draw samples from the same point in the system.
- Sample at a point where a steady, full flow of oil is present.
- Sample only when machinery is at operating temperature.
- Thoroughly purge sampling connection to remove debris.
- Draw some sample into a clean container,mix well and
decent can into the 500ml container provided,leaving a
small amount of room for expansion.
-Ensure plastic sealing disc and cap are securely fitted.
- Ensure sample label on bottle is fully completed.
DO NOT - Sample from places in the system where the oil may be stagnant.
i.e. filter drain cocks etc.

DESPATCH: - Recheck that seal and cap are tight and that details are completed
correctly on the supplied label.
- To speed results we suggest that samples be dispatched by courier
- Do remember to write the correct mailing address on the envelope
THANK YOU !!!