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REMEMBER

No job is so important and No service is so urgent that we cannot take time to perform our work safely.

HAZARDS OF PETROLEUM INDUSTRY

By KANISHK BHARADWAJ Roll no. E09-0030

OUTLINE
What is petroleum industry? What are upstream & downstream processes? Upstream processes & application. Downstream processes & application . Hazards of petroleum industry. Oil spilling Rig fire explosion Environmental hazards Safety measures to cure petroleum hazards Disaster management in petroleum industry.

INTRODUCTION

The History of Oil

Pre-Modern Oil Use The First Oil Wells - 1840s-1850s for the need of kerosene . Birth of a Boom 1896: First off-shore wells 1938: Discovery of Saudi Arabian well built out of sightof coast reserves Evolution of the Price of Oil

What is a Petroleum Industry ?


A petroleum industry is exploring & taking out crude oil , refining it into various useful constituents & making profitable business through it

Upstream & Downstream operations


Upstream includes exploration , drilling & production of crude oil . Downstream consists of processing of crude oil.

Upstream processes Application of tools & methods involved


Remote sensing Mapping Biostratigraphy Chronostratigraphy Lithostratigraphy Resevoir strategies

Downstream processes Application of tools & methods involved


Seperation Purification Upgradation Blunting

Hazards of Petroleum Industry


Spilling of oil Flaring of gases in refinery Mercury spilling Service Rig fire & Explosion Electrical hazards Environmental Hazards - Air pollution - Unsecured plants & animals - landscape deteroitation

Oil Spills
crude & refined petroleum accidentally & deliberately released into environment; most from normal operation of offshore wells, washing tankers, & leaks of pipeline & storage tanks; tanker & offshore drilling site accidents can release large amounts in short time;

Effects of Oil Spills


volatile organics immediately kill of many aquatic organisms (especially plankton & larvae) & contaminate fish; floating oil coats birds & marine mammal; destroys natural insulation & buoyancy, & causes deaths;

heavy oil sinks to ocean bottom & washes into estuaries where it contaminates crabs, oysters, mussels, clams, etc. oil slicks on beaches harm intertidal life & cause economic losses to tourism & fishing industries.

Fish Kills: SOP with the Division of Fish &


Wildlife Is the cause natural or potentially pollution?

What is it?

Marine Releases

Case Study: Exxon Valdez Oil Spill


March 24, 1989, tanker in Prince William Sound, Alaska, worst oil spill in U.S. waters;
coated 1,600 of shoreline, killed wildlife, & caused serious contamination; Exxon spent $2.2 billion on direct cleanup + $1 billion fines & damages; another $5 billion being appealed.

Service Rig Fire and Explosion


Use of the rig pump : The rig crew has to circulate fluid down the tubing and monitoring return fluiding and collecting the return fluid in the rig tank

Flaring of gases in refinery


Vapours collected in a closed safety system are disposed of by burning at a safe location. The facilitities used for this burning are called flares

Flare top igniter assembly.

Indirect Hazards of Petroleum


Drive Smarter: It doesnt just save money. It reduces gasoline consumption, . . . And it reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Keep your tires properly inflated. This improves gas mileage by about three percent. ExxonMobil 2008 If automobiles are going to run on milk, then well be in the milk business. Chairman of Chevron, 1999

CAN YOU FIND THE HAZARD(S)?


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What Causes Injuries?


Acts of God 2% Unsafe Conditions 20%
20%

Unsafe Acts 78%

78 %

UNSAFE CONDITIONS ACTS OF GOD

UNSAFE ACTS
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Texas Workers Compensation Insurance Fund 2001

Oil Field Safety

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SAFETY..is part of everyday living. It is an important consideration for everyone in everything he/she does, in the home, at work or play, on streets and highways wherever he/she goes.

Safe operating practices and procedures are vital in the drilling business because the work is hazardous, involving massive machinery, heavy tools and great physical strength.

When accidents do occur, the work can be a serious peril to life and limb. Drilling personnel must know how to work safely on a rig in order to protect themselves, costly rig equipment, and the expensive hole being drilled.
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SAFETY IN THE OILFIELD, not the mechanical aspects of oilfield work. This orientation includes:
SAFETY PROGRAM, INSPECTIONS, SAFETY MEETINGS, HAZARD AWARENESS, ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION, ACCIDENT REPORTING

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Waste management & its disposal


EC90 Effective concentration to kill 90% of spores LD50 Lithal concentration to kill 50% of micro organisms & bacteria

Radiation Safety Management


Delayed coking provides competitive advantage: - Cheaper to install/operate - Allows processing of heavier crude oils. Radiation sources measure liquid & foam levels inside the coking drum. IH Service Benefit: Maintain radiation license,

OISD Standards
Areas Covered Design and Layout of Facilities Construction, Operation, Maintenance & Inspection Procedures Work Permit System Training Use of Personal Protection Equipment

OISD Standards
Areas contd.... Occupational Health Monitoring Fire Protection & Fire-Fighting Facilities Environment Protection, Oil Spill Emergency Preparedness Safety Management System

Operating Procedures and Safe Work Practices

Work Permit System

Practices on Oil Storage and Handling, Storage, Transportation of Bulk Petroleum Products, LPG
Safety Practices During Construction Recommended Practices on Static Electricity Well Control, Cementing Operations Safe Procedures & Guidelines for Workover and Well Stimulation Operations Guidelines for Gas Lift Operations . Safe handling of air hydrocarbon mixtures

Inbuilt Safety
Process design and operating philosophies on pressure relief and disposal system Design and Construction requirements for cross country hydrocarbon pipelines Safety instrumentation for process system in hydrocarbon industry Design and Safety Requirements for LPG Mounded Storage Facility Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) Bottling Plant Design Philosophies Design aspects for safety in electrical systems

Environment Management
Guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessment
Recommended Practices for Environment Protection in Upstream Petroleum Sector (Onland Facilities) Formulation Of Environment Management Plan For drilling Operations Guidelines For Preparation Of Oil Spill Response Contingency Plan

Conclusion
The conclusion of whole presentation is ,we have to prevent from harm during a hazard & to take saf ety measures to save everyone from hazards Because prevention is better than cure.

REFERENCES
www.wikipedia.com www.ipshem.asp.com www.pesa_2009_weaver.com www.whs_pub_.co.in www.google.co.in Handbook of petroleum processing by Stan & Pujado

SPECIAL REGARDS TO Dr. A. K. Choubey Sir Mr. Aditya Nag

THANKYOU