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Axial and Radial Flow Turbines
Differences between turbine and compressor:
Long Short
Compressor Turbine
Work as nozzle Work as diffuser
Direction of rotation is same
as
Life
Direction of rotation is
opposite
to lift direction

Number of stages is small

<3
Number of stages are many
Temperature is high,
sometimes
blade cooling is required
Temperatures are relative
low

Axial and Radial Flow Turbines

Differences between Radial and Axial Types.
Axial
(Centrifugal)
Used for large engines Used for small engines
Large mass flow rates Small mass flow rates
Better efficiencies Lower efficiencies
Expensive Cheap
Difficult to manufacture Easy to manufacture
Axial Flow Turbines
Most of the gas turbines employ the axial
flow turbines.

The chapter is concerned with axial flow
turbines.

The radial turbine can handle low mass
flows more efficiently than the axial flow
machines.
Axial Flow Turbine
Elementary Theory of Axial Flow Turbine
Velocity Triangles.
The velocity triangles for one axial flow turbine stage and
the nomenclature employed are shown. The gas enters the
row of nozzle blades with a static pressure and temperature
P1, T1, and a velocity C1, is expanded to P2, T2, with an
increased velocity C2 at an angle 2.

The rotor blade angle will be chosen to suit the
direction 2 of the gas velocity V2 relative to the blade at
inlet.

V2 and 2 are obtained from the velocity diagram of
known C2, 2, and U.

Axial Flow Turbine
Elementary Theory
The gas leaves the rotor at 3, T3, with relative velocity
V3 at an angle 3.
C3 and 3 can be obtained from the velocity diagram.
Axial Flow Turbine
Single Stage Turbine
C1 is axial 1 = 0, and C1 = C1. For
similar stages (same black shapes) C1 = C3, and
1 = 3, called repeating stage.
Due to change of U with radius, velocity
triangles vary from root to tip of the blade.
Axial Flow Turbine
Assumptions
Consider conditions at the mean diameter of the
annulus will represent the average picture of what
happen to total mass flow.
This is valid for low ratio of tip radius to root radius.
For high radii ratio, 3-D effects have to be
considered.
The change of tangential (whirl) mass is . This
amount produces useful torque.
The change in axial component produces the axial
thrust on the rotor.
Also there is an axial thrust due to P2 P3.
These forces (net thrust on turbine rotor) are
normally balanced by the thrust on the compressor rotor.
Axial Flow Turbine
Axial Flow Turbine
Calculation of Work
Assume Ca= constant

2 3
Ca Ca
Ca
=
=

2 2
3 3
tan tan
tan tan
U
Ca
o |
| o

=

`

=
)

2 2 3
tan tan tan tan
e
o o | | + = +
2 2
tan tan U Ca Ca o | =
(1)
Axial Flow Turbine
Applying principle of angular momentum

( )
2 3
2 3
(
( )(tan tan )
s
W U C C
U Ca
e e
o o
= +
= +
From Equation (1)

2 3
(tan tan )
s
W UCa | | = +

s
p o
W C T + A
Thus:

2 3
(tan tan ) /
1.148, 1.333 and 4
1
s
o p
p
T UCa C
C
o o

A = +
= = =

Axial Flow Turbine

Elementary theory of axial flow turbine
( )
( )
1 3,
3,
1
1
1
1 3
1
1
1
1
/
s isent
isent
isent
o s o
s o o
o
s o
o
s o
o o
T T
T T
T
T
T
T
P P

q
q
q
q

A = A
'
=
'
| |
=
|
|
\ .
(
| |
(
|
=
(
|
(
\ .

Axial Flow Turbine
s is the isentropic stage efficiency based on
stagnation (total) temperature.

1 3
1 3
o o
s
o o
T T
T T
q

=
'

1 3
1
3
( )
o o
s
o
T T
total to static
T T
q

=
'

(used for land-based gas turbines).

Defining
coefficient)

2
2
s
p o
C T
U

A
=
Axial Flow Turbine
Thus,

2 3
2 (tan tan ) /
a
C U | | = +
Degree of reaction: 0 1

)
)
2, 3
2, 3
2 3
1, 3 1 3
1, 3
rotor
total
h
T
T T
T T T
h
A
A

A = = =
A
A
For, Ca = const. and C3 = C1
( )
1 3
1 3
2 3
( )
(tan tan )
p p o o
a
C T T C T T
U C | |
=
= +
and relative to rotor blades no work, thus
(a)
Axial Flow Turbine
( )
( )
( )
2 2
2 3 3 2
2 2 2
3 2
2 2 2
3 2
1
( )
2
1
sec sec
2
1
tan tan
2
p
a
a
C T T V V
C
C
| |
| |
=
=
=
( )
2 2
1
3 2 2
2 3
1 3 2 3
tan tan
(tan tan
a
a
C
T T
T T UC
| |
| |

=
+
1
3 2
(tan tan )
2
C
U
| | A =
Substitute in (a):

Axial Flow Turbine
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
3 2
3 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
3 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
3 2
tan tan
a w a w
w w
a a
V V C C u C C u
C u C u
C C | |
( (
= + + + +
( (

= + +
=
2 3 3 2
and o | o | = =
3 2 3 2
and V V | | = =
3 2 3 2
, C C o o = =
a
C
U
| =
= 0.5 Symm. velocity triangles

= 0 : Impulse turbine

= 1 :
Defining flow coefficient:
Axial Flow Turbine
2 1
3 2
2 (tan tan )
(tan tan )
2
| | |
|
| |
= +
A = +
3
1 1
tan 2
2 2
|
|
| |
= + A
|
\ .
2
1 1
tan 2
2 2
|
|
| |
= + A
|
\ .
From:
2 2
3 3
3 3
2 2
(tan tan )
(tan tan )
1
tan tan
1
tan tan
a
a
U C
U C
o |
| o
o |
|
o |
|
=
=
=
=
Axial Flow Turbine
If , , and | are assumed, blade angles can be determined.
For aircraft applications:
3 < < s, 0.8 < | < 1
For industrial applications:
is less (more stages)
| is less (larger engine size)
3 < 20 (to min. losses in nozzle)
Loss coefficient:

)
1 2
1
2 2
2
( )
2
2
/ 2
n
nozzle stator
p
o o
N
o
T T
C C
P P
Y
P P

'

and Y: The proportion of the leaving energy

which is degraded by friction.
Axial Flow Turbine
Example (Mean diameter design)
Given:
1
1 3
1 3
1
Single-stage turbine
= 20 kg/s
= 0.9
= 1100 K
Temperature drop, = 145 K
Pressure ratio, / = 1.873
Inlet pressure, = 4 bar
t
o
o o
o o
o
m
T
T T
P P
P
q

Assumptions:
Rotational speed fixed by compressor: N = 250 rps
Mean blade speed: 340 m/s
Nozzle loss coefficient:
2 2
2
2
/ 2
N
p
T T
C C

'

=
Axial Flow Turbine
/
t r
r r
2 3
1 3
1
,
0
a a
C C C C
o
= =
=
Calculation:
a) degree of reaction at mean radius
b)Plot velocity diagrams
Assume:

3
2 2
2
2 1.148 145 10
2.88
340
s
p o
C T
U

A

= = =
flow coefficient 0.8
a
C
U
| =
The temperature drop coefficient:

Assume (try):
Axial Flow Turbine
3 3
1
tan tan o |
|
=
3
tan 1.25 | =
3
1 1
tan 2
2 2
0.28
|
|
| |
= + A
|
\ .
A =

To get use

This is low as a mean radius value because will
be low or negative at the root.
This introduce a value for
3
.
Take
3
= 10
* To calculate degree of reaction :
Get 3:
3 = 0
Axial Flow Turbine
3 3 3
3
1
tan tan tan 1.426
1 1
tan 2
2 2
0.421 (Acceptable)
o | |
|
|
|
= =
| |
= + A
|
\ .
A =
Reaction at root should be checked.
Thus 3 = 10, 3 = tan-1 1.426 = 54.96
2
2
1 1
tan 2 0.374
2 2
0.421
2.88
0.8
20.49
|
|

|
|
| |
= A =
|
\ .
A =
=
=
=
Axial Flow Turbine
2 2
2
1
tan tan 1.624
58.38
o |
|
o
= + =
=
3 3 2 2
, , , , U o | o |
/
t r
r r
1
1
:axial
a
C C =
With knowledge of
plot velocity diagrams.

* Determine blade height h and tip/root radius ratio,
.
Assumption:

Calculation of area at Section 2 (exit of nozzle)
Axial Flow Turbine
2
2
2 1
2
2 2 2
2
2
2 2
340 0.8 272 m/s
cos 519 m/s
1100 K
5.9 K
2
a
a
o o
o
p
C U
C C C
T T
C
T T T
C
|
o
= = =
= =
=
= =
2
2
2 2
2
0.05 117.3 5.9 K
2
976.8 K
N
p
C
T T
C
T

'
= = =
'
=
1 1
1
2
/ 1
4
2
2
2.49 bar
o
P
o o
o
P T
P
P T

=
| |
= =
|
'
\ .
Axial Flow Turbine
For the nozzle:
1
1
2
1
2
1 1
1
1
/(2 )
1 1
1
2 2
1 4
2.16
2 1.853
o p
o
c
c
M
T T C C
M
T T
P
P
P

=
+
=
= = +
+
| |
= = =
|
\ .
P2 > Pc, the nozzle is not choked.
2
, 2.49
throat
Thus P P = =
3
2
2 2
2
2
2 2 2 2
2
2
2 2
2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
0.833 /
, , m , 0.0833
throat area of nozzles; A
, m 0.0437 , also A cos
a
a
P
kg m
RT
m
A or C A A m
C
m
N
C
or C A N A N m A N

o
= =
= = =
=
= = =
Axial Flow Turbine
Calculate areas at section (1) inlet nozzle and (3) exit rotor.
3
1 1
1
1 1
1
1 1 3 3
3
2
1
1 1
1
1 1
1
3
1
1 1
1
2
1 1 1
, but C C , 276.4 /
cos
1067
2
3.54
1.155 /
0.626
a
a a
o
p
o o
a
C
C C C and C m s
C
T T T K
c
P T
P bar
P T
P
kg m
RT
m C A A m

= = = =
= =
| |
= =
|
|
\ .
= =
= =
Axial Flow Turbine
3 1 5
3
3 3
o
2
3
3 3
1
3 3
3
3
3
3 5
5
Similarly at outlet of stage ( rotor)
T 1100 145 955 ,
922
2
1.856
0.702 /
o o
o
p
o o
T T K given
C
T T T K
c
P T
P bar
P T
P
kg m
RT

= A = =
= =
| |
= =
|
|
\ .
= =
3
2
3 5 5
2
3 3 3
3/ 0.702 /
0.1047
a
P RT kg m
m C A A m

= =
= =
Axial Flow Turbine
m
340
2 0.216
2 (250)
for known (A); A 2 r
m m m
u Nr r m
also h
t
t
t
= = =
=
t
r ,
2 2 2
m r m
m
A h h
h then r r r
r t
= = + =
using areas at stations 1,2,3 thus
2
1
m A
m h
1
/
t r
r r
3 2 1 Location
0.1047 0.0833 0.0626
0.077 0.0612 0.04
1.43 1.33 1.24
Axial Flow Turbine
Blade with width W
Normally taken as W=h/3
Spacing s between axial blades
t
r
a t
space
0.25, should not be less than 0.2 W
width
r
* should be 1.2 1.4
r
unsatisfactory values such as 0.43 can be reduced by
changing axial velocity through .
increasing C reduce r check has to
s
w
will
|
= =

v
be made for mach number M .
Axial Flow Turbine
Vortex Theory
The blade speed ( u=er) changes from root to tip, thus
velocity triangles must vary from root to tip.

Free Vortex design
axial velocity is constant over the annulus.
Whirl velocity is inversely proportional to annulus.

, C , tan
tan C , tan
3 3
2 2
const r t cons C
t cons r t cons C
a
a
= =
= =
e
e
( )
2 3 2 3
( ) tan
s
W u C C C r C r cons t
e e e e
e = + = + =
Axial Flow Turbine
For variable density, m is given by
}
=
=
t
r
r
r
a
a
rdr
C m
C r r m
2
2
2
2
2
) 2 (

t
o t o
( ) ( )
2 2
2
2
a 2
2 2
2
3 3
3
tan tan
C cosntant, thus changes as
tan tan (a)
tan tan (b)
a
m
m
m
m
C r cons t r C
but is
r
r
similarly
r
r
e
o
o
o o
o o
= =
| |
=
|
\ .
| |
=
|
\ .
Axial Flow Turbine
2 2
2
2
s 3
3
2 2 2 2
m
2
2
a 3 3
3 3
3
3
tan tan , , tan tan
r
tan (c)
r
for exit of rotor u C tan tan
tan tan (d)
a a
a
m
m a
a
m
m
m a
u
u C C thus
C
u r
m
r C
C
r r u
thus
r r C
o | | o
o
o o
| o
= =
| |
| |
=
|
|
\ .
\ .
= +
| |
| |
= +
|
|
\ .
\ .
Ex: Free vortex
Results from mean diameter calculations
2 2m 3
3 2
3
58.38, 20.49, 10 ,
54.96, 0.0612, 0.216,
0.077,
2
o
m m
m m
r m
h r
h
h r r
o | o
|
= = =
= = =
= =
Axial Flow Turbine
58.33 8.52 0 54.93 Tip
51.13 12.12 39.32 62.15 Root
54.96 10 20.49 58.38 mean
3
o
3
|
2 3
2
3 2 3
m
a
1.164, ( ) 0.877, 1.217, 0.849
u 1
also 1.25, Results are
C
m m m m
t t r t
m
a
r r r r
r r r r
u
C |
| | | | | |
= = =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
= = =
2
|
2
o
Axial Flow Turbine
'
3 o 1 o
3 o 1 o
s
) 1 /(
1 o
3 o
1 o s
1 o
'
3 o
1 o s 3 o 1 o os
1 2 a 1 2 a
3 2 a 3 2 a 3 o 1 o p os p
3 3 2 2
a
T T
T T
where
) )
p
p
( 1 ( T )
T
T
1 ( T T T T
) tan (tan UC m ) tan (tan UC m
) tan (tan UC m ) tan (tan UC m ) T T ( c m T c m W
tan tan tan tan
C
U

= q
q = q = = A
| | = o o =
| + | == o + o = == A =
o | = | o =

EES Design Calculations of Axial Flow Turbine
Known Information
To
1
= 1100 [K]
P
ratio
= 1.873
DelTs = 145
Etta
turbine
= 0.9
Assumptions
U = 340 [m/s]
N
rps
= 250
= 0.8
3
= 10
Loss
nozzle
= 0.05
EES Design Calculations of Axial Flow Turbine
cp = 1148 R = 0.287 = 1.333
DelTs = To
1
To
3
P
ratio
=
Po
1
Po
3
Ca = C2 cos (
2
)
=
Ca
U
Gamr =
1
Epsi = 2 cp
DelTs
U
2
Epsi = 2 ( tan (
2
) + tan (
3
) )
Reaction =
2
( tan (
3
) tan (
2
) )
U = Ca ( tan (
2
) tan (
2
) )
U = Ca ( tan (
3
) tan (
3
) )
EES Design Calculations of Axial Flow Turbine
Calculate A2
Loss
nozzle
=
T2 T2dash
C2
2
2 cp
To
2
= To
1
To
2
T2 =
C2
2
2 cp
Po
1
P2
=
To
1
T2dash
Gamr
Po
1
Pc
=
+ 1
2
Gamr
Pth = P2
Rho2 =
Pth
R T2
A2 =
m
Rho2 Ca
A2 cos (
2
) = A2N
EES Design Calculations of Axial Flow Turbine
Calculate A1
To
1
T1 =
C1
2
2 cp
Po
1
P1
=
To
1
T1
Gamr
Rho1 =
P1
R T1
C1 = Ca
A1 =
m
Rho1 Ca
Calculate A3
To
3
T3 =
C3
2
2 cp
Po
3
P3
=
To
3
T3
Gamr
Rho3 =
P3
R T3
C3 = Ca
A3 =
m
Rho3 Ca
EES Design Calculations of Axial Flow Turbine
U = 2 N
rps
r
m
Blade height at section 1
A1 = 2 r
m
h1
r
t1
= r
m
+
h1
2
r
r1
= r
m

h1
2
rratio
1
=
r
t1
r
r1
Blade height at section 2
A2 = 2 r
m
h2
r
t2
= r
m
+
h2
2
r
r2
= r
m

h2
2
rratio
2
=
r
t2
r
r2
Blade height at section 3
A3 = 2 r
m
h3
r
t3
= r
m
+
h3
2
r
r3
= r
m

h3
2
rratio
3
=
r
t3
r
r3
EES Design Calculations of Axial Flow Turbine
A1 = 0.06345 A2 = 0.08336 A2N = 0.04372 A3 = 0.1046
2
= 58.37
3
= 10
2
= 20.49
3
= 54.97 C1 = 272 C2 = 518.7
C3 = 272 Ca = 272 cp = 1148 [J/kgK] DelTs = 145 Epsi = 2.88
Etta
turbine
= 0.9 = 1.333 Gamr = 4.003 h1 = 0.04666 h2 = 0.06129
h3 = 0.07692 Loss
nozzle
= 0.05 m = 20 [kg/s] N
rps
= 250 [rev per sec] P1 = 355.1
P2 = 248.8 P3 = 186.1 Pc = 215.9 = 0.8 Po
1
= 400 [kPa]
Po
3
= 213.6 Pth = 248.8 P
ratio
= 1.873 R = 0.287 [kJ/kgK] Reaction = 0.4211
Rho1 = 1.159 Rho2 = 0.8821 Rho3 = 0.7029 rratio
1
= 1.242 rratio
2
= 1.33
rratio
3
= 1.432 r
m
= 0.2165 r
r1
= 0.1931 r
r2
= 0.1858 r
r3
= 0.178
r
t1
= 0.2398 r
t2
= 0.2471 r
t3
= 0.2549 T1 = 1068 T2 = 982.8
T2dash = 977 T3 = 922.8 To
1
= 1100 [K] To
2
= 1100 [K] To
3
= 955
U = 340 [m/s]
Axial Flow Turbine
Axial Flow Turbine