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THE ENLIGHTENMENT

Scientific Revolution
1543 - 1700 Advances in astronomy, physics, anatomy, biology, chemistry Inspired by Renaissance & da Vinci Made possible by Printing Press Spread across all of Europe Changed thinking from tradition, religion and superstition to reason and science.

Scientific Work of Da Vinci

Humanism
Philosophical movement of the Renaissance Placed highest value and importance on human existence Called for a return and new translations of ancient Greek and Roman texts Greek science and math rediscovered Dutch Humanist Erasmus emphasized rationality Creates sense of human rights, Secularism, justice

Rene Descartes
1596 - 1650 French philosopher, mathematician and physicist Father of Modern Philosophy and Analytical Geometry Published Discourse on the Method, 1637 Cogito ergo sum Influenced future philosophers and rationalism Started discussion of duality - the mind/body dichotomy

Age of Reason
17th Century philosophy Begins with Descartes Bridge between Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment Philosophers present unified systems of logic, ethics, politics, metaphysics Bacon, Newton, Spinoza, Gallileo, Descartes, Locke, Pascal Move away from theology, although still with an existing deity

Thomas Hobbes
1588 - 1679 English philosopher, writer, intellectual Published The Leviathan, 1651 Argued for a strong, central government to maintain stability Begins tradition of social contract theory Discusses the foundation of sovereign states and legitimate governments

John Locke
1632 - 1704 English philosopher and physician Major influence on Rousseau, Voltaire and American patriots Postulated the tabula rasa, or the mind as a blank state Published Two Treatises of Government, 1689 Continues the ideas of the social contract Political philosophy of republicanism and liberal theory introduced

Baruch Spinoza
1632 - 1677 Dutch philosopher of Portuguese Jewish descent Dismissed from Jewish community at age 23, books placed on Vaticans banned list Applied geometry to philosophy, emphasis on cause & effect Influenced psychology, studied by Einstein Advocated democracy and rationalism God exists only philosophically

Montesquieu
1689 - 1755 French political philosopher Published Spirit of the Laws, 1748 Continued support of liberal theory Articulated theory of separation of powers Classified governments based on principles Called for executive, legislative and judicial branches

1694 - 1778 French philosopher, writer (real name FrancoisMarie Arouet) Wrote more than 20,000 lettes and 2,000 books & pamphlets Criticized Catholic Church and French institutions w/ satire Supported freedom of religion, free trade

Voltaire

Published Candide, 1759 Deist & Freemason, friend of B. Franklin Great influence on French & American Revolutions

Diderot
1713 - 1784 French philosopher & writer Published Encyclopdie in 1751 First encyclopedia published with mechanical arts, Enlightenment philosophy & writers To change the way people think Challenged institutions and authority of Catholic Church Major influence on the French Revolution

Jean-Jacques Rousseau
1712 - 1778 Philosopher & writer from Geneva Disputed Hobbes assertion that man needed strong government, supported Lockes tabula rasa Published The Social Contract, 1762 Determines the only legitimate political authority is that based on the consent of the governed Liberal theory

The Social Contract


Man is born free, and everywhere he is in chains.
THE Sovereign, having no force other than the legislative power, acts only by means of the laws; and the laws being solely the authentic acts of the general will, the Sovereign cannot act save when the people is assembled. Every law the people has not ratified in person is null and void is, in fact, not a law. The legislative power belongs to the people, and can belong to it alone.

Each of us places his person and authority under the supreme direction of the general will, and the group receives each individual as an indivisible part of the whole

Royal Society of London


Started by Royal Charter in 1662 Worlds first learned society of science Fellows included Robert Boyle, Christopher Wren, Robert Hooke, Isaac Newton Society Fellows serve on government committees involving science Overshadowed by French Acadamie in 1700s

French Academie de Science


Founded in 1666 by Louis XIV 1700 - 1793, house in the Louvre At forefront of European science during 1700s Made an official body of the government Abolished by National Convention during French Revolution

Acadmie des Sciences

Freemasonry
Exact origins unknown, 4 lodges exist in England & Wales by 1700 1717 United Grand Lodge of England formed Fraternal organization and esoteric society based on belief in a supreme being A system of morality veiled in allegory and illustrated by symbols Exported to America by 1730s - attracted brightest minds

Freemasons Hall Lodge #1

Deism
Religious and philosophical belief system Belief is a supreme being that create the universe This truth can be observed with science and reason No need for faith or organized religion Rejects supernatural Religion of the Enlightenment and Age of Reason Many philosophers and Americas founding fathers

Benjamin Franklin
1706 - 1790 American author, inventor, scientist, activist, diplomat, philosopher, statesmen, printer Deist and Freemason Respected Enlightenment figure Brought Enlightenment ideas to America Established University of Pennsylvania First President of Ameican Philosophical Society American diplomat to France during Revolution

Thomas Paine
1737 - 1809 Immigrated to America in 1774 Major influence on American & French Revolutions Deist & Freemason Common Sense, 1776 Rights of Man, 1791 Age of Reason, 1793

Thomas Jefferson
1743 - 1826 American President, inventor, author, philosopher, architect Deist & Freemason Declaration of Independence, 1776 Created University of Virginia Strong belief in social contract, the republic & religious freedom In Paris during French Revolution

Mary Wollstonecraft
1759 - 1797 English writer, philosopher, feminist Mother of Mary Shelley A Vindication of the Rights of Women, 1792 Argued women and men are equal and deserve equal rights Founding thinker of Feminism

Salon Society

Immanuel Kant
1724 - 1804 German Philosopher Last of the Enlightenment thinkers Major influence on all Western Philosophers to come after him Wrote critiques on many topics, a new tradition First to use term Enlightenment