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11 Configuring the

Oracle Network Environment

Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved.


Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to:


• Use Enterprise Manager to:
– Create additional listeners
– Create Oracle Net Service aliases
– Configure connect-time failover
– Control the Oracle Net Listener
• Use Oracle Net Manager to configure
client and middle-tier connections
• Use tnsping to test Oracle Net connectivity
• Identify when to use shared servers versus
dedicated servers

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Oracle Net Services

Application RDBMS

Oracle Net TCP/IP Oracle Net


Client or network
Listener Database server
middle tier

Oracle Net Oracle Net


configuration files configuration files

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Tools for Configuring and Managing
the Oracle Network

• Enterprise Manager Net Services Administration


page
• Oracle Net Manager
• Oracle Net Configuration Assistant launched by
Oracle Universal Installer
• Command Line

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Listener Control Utility

Oracle Net listeners can be controlled with the


command-line lsnrctl utility.
$lsnrctl
LSNRCTL for Linux: Version 10.2.0.0.0 on 12-MAY-2005 13:27:51
Copyright (c) 1991, 2004, Oracle. All rights reserved.
Welcome to LSNRCTL, type "help" for information.
LSNRCTL> help
The following operations are available
An asterisk (*) denotes a modifier or extended command:

start stop status


services version reload
save_config trace spawn
change_password quit exit
set* show*

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Listener Control Utility Syntax

Commands from the listener control utility can be


issued from the command line or from the LSNRCTL
prompt.
• UNIX or Linux command-line syntax:
# lsnrctl <command name>
# lsnrctl start
# lsnrctl status

• Prompt syntax:
LSNRCTL> <command name>
LSNRCTL> start
LSNRCTL> status

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Listener Control Utility Syntax
Full Notes Page

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Listener Home Page

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Net Services Administration Pages

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Oracle Net Listener

Enterprise Listener
Manager
Database
Control Oracle database(s)

Oracle Net
configuration files
<oracle_home>/network/admin/listener.ora
sqlnet.ora

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Creating a Listener

3
4

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Adding Listener Addresses

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Database Service Registration

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Where We Are

• Learning how to use Enterprise Manager to:


– Create and monitor listeners
– Add listening addresses
– Edit database service registration
• Establishing connections—choose/configure:
– Names Resolution
– Oracle Net Service aliases
– Connect-time failover
– Load balancing (RAC)
– Source routing
• Using Oracle Net Manager
• Testing Oracle Net connectivity
• Identifying when to use shared servers versus
dedicated servers
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Establishing Net Connections

To make a client or middle-tier connection, Oracle Net


requires the client to know the:
• Host where the listener is running
• Port that the listener is monitoring
• Protocol that the listener is using
• Name of the service that the listener is handling

Names Resolution

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Naming Methods

Oracle Net supports several methods of resolving


connection information:
• Easy connect naming: Uses a TCP/IP connect
string
• Local naming: Uses a local configuration file
• Directory naming: Uses a centralized
LDAP-compliant directory server
• External naming: Uses a supported non-Oracle
naming service

Client/application server
Oracle Net

Oracle Net configuration files

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Easy Connect

• Is enabled by default
• Requires no client-side configuration
• Supports only TCP/IP (no SSL)
• Offers no support for advanced connection
options, such as:
– Connect-time failover
– Source routing
– Load balancing
SQL> CONNECT hr/hr@db.us.oracle.com:1521/dba10g

No Oracle Net configuration files

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Local Naming

• Requires a client-side Names Resolution file


• Supports all Oracle Net protocols
• Supports advanced connection options, such as:
– Connect-time failover
– Source routing
– Load balancing

SQL> CONNECT hr/hr@orcl

Oracle Net
configuration files

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Directory Naming

• Requires LDAP with Oracle Net Names Resolution


information loaded:
– Oracle Internet Directory
– Microsoft Active Directory Services
• Supports all Oracle Net protocols
• Supports advanced connection options

LDAP directory

SQL> CONNECT hr/hr@orcl

Oracle Net
configuration files

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External Naming Method

• Uses a supported non-Oracle naming service


• Includes:
– Network Information Service (NIS) External Naming
– Distributed Computing Environment (DCE) Cell
Directory Services (CDS)
Non-Oracle
naming
service

Oracle Net

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Configuring Service Aliases

Create or
edit

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Advanced Connection Options

Oracle Net supports the following advanced


connection options with local and directory naming:
• Connect-time failover
• Load balancing
• Source routing

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Advanced Connection Options
Full Notes Page

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Where We Are

• Learning how to use Enterprise Manager to:


– Create and monitor listeners
– Add listening addresses
– Edit database service registration
• Establishing connections—choose/configure:
– Names Resolution
– Oracle Net Service aliases
– Connect-time failover
– Load balancing (RAC)
– Source routing
• Using Oracle Net Manager
• Testing Oracle Net connectivity
• Identifying when to use shared servers versus
dedicated servers
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Oracle Net Manager

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Choosing Naming Methods

Oracle Net Manager configures the Names Resolution


methods for a client or middle tier and the order in
which they are checked.

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Configuring Service Naming with Net
Manager
Step 1: Net Service Name Step 2: Protocol

Step 4: Service
Step 3: Protocol Setting

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Configuring Service Naming with Net
Manager
Step 5: Test

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Using Oracle Net Manager to Select
Advanced Connection Options
Oracle Net supports the following advanced
connection options with local and directory naming:
• Connect-time failover
• Load balancing
• Source routing

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Testing Oracle Net Connectivity

The tnsping utility that tests Oracle Net service


aliases:
• Ensures connectivity between the client and the
Oracle Net Listener
• Does not verify that the requested service is
available
• Supports Easy Connect Names Resolution:
tnsping db.us.oracle.com:1521/dba10g

• Supports local and directory naming:


tnsping orcl

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Where We Are

• Using Enterprise Manager to configure Oracle


Network components
• Using Oracle Net Manager
• Testing Oracle Net connectivity
• Identifying when to use shared servers versus
dedicated servers

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Establishing a Connection

Incoming
connection request
Listener

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User Sessions

Server
process

User session PGA

User process

Listener

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User Sessions: Dedicated Server

User sessions

Server process
Server process
User session Server process
Server process
Server process
Server process

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User Sessions: Shared Servers

Server
process

Dispatcher

Listener

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Processing a Request with Shared Servers

Shared server
Instance
processes
4 SGA
S000 Response queue
Common for D000
S001 request queue Response queue
for all for D001
S002
3
dispatchers Response queue
for D002
2 5

Dispatcher Dispatcher Dispatcher


D000 D001 D002
Database server
6
1 User Client or
process User middle tier
process

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SGA and PGA

Dedicated server: User session data is kept in the


PGA.
SGA PGA
User
Largepool and other Stack Cursor Sort
session
memory structures space state data
data

Oracle Shared Server: User session data is held in the


SGA.
SGA PGA

User Large pool and


Cursor Sort Stack
session other memory
state data space
data structures

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Shared Server: Connection Pooling

The client application has been


idle past the specified time, and
Idle an incoming client requests a
client connection.

Active
client

Database The maximum


New number of
server
client connections is
This client connection is the 256th configured to 255.
connection into the server. Connection
pooling is turned on, so that this
connection can be accepted.

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When Not to Use a Shared Server

Certain types of database work must not be performed


by using shared servers:
• Database administration
• Backup and recovery operations
• Batch processing and bulk load operations
• Data warehouse operations

Dispatcher Server process

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Oracle Connection Manager (CMAN):
Overview

• Oracle Connection Manager typically resides on a


separate server.
• It functions as a net traffic firewall and proxy
server.
• It can be configured to perform:
– Access control filtering
– Session multiplexing
– Protocol conversion

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Multiplexing Sessions

Oracle
Connection
Web browser RDBMS
Manager
Oracle
Net
Database
server
Web browser Application
Web server

Intranet
Web browser
Client

11-41 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved.


Summary

In this lesson, you should have learned how to:


• Use Enterprise Manager to:
– Create additional listeners
– Create Oracle Net Service aliases
– Configure connect-time failover
– Control the Oracle Net Listener
• Use Oracle Net Manager to configure
client and middle-tier connections
• Use tnsping to test Oracle Net connectivity
• Identify when to use shared servers versus
dedicated servers

11-42 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved.


Practice Overview:
Working with Oracle Network Components

This practice covers:


• Configuring local Names Resolution to connect to
another database
• Creating a second listener for connect-time
failover

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11-44 Copyright © 2005, Oracle. All rights reserved.