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RESEARCH

METHODOLOGY
(Business Research Methods)

MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 1


Decision-Making
Decision-Making is the process of resolving a
problem or choosing amongst alternative
opportunities

 What is the problem or opportunity?


 How much Information is available?
 What Information is needed?

Complete Absolute
Decision-Making
Certainty Ambiguity
Situation

Value of Research
MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 2
Certainty, Uncertainty, Ambiguity
 Certainty – Decision-maker has all the requisite
information concerning the business problem (or
opportunity). Research may be unnecessary. Complete
certainty about the future is rare in practice

 Uncertainty – General nature of the business problem is


clear but information about alternative courses of action
is incomplete as are the events which may occur.
Research may be a potentially valuable tool here

 Ambiguity – Nature of the problem to be solved is


unclear. Objectives are vague and alternatives difficult to
define. Research may be a useful excercise
MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 3
Types of Research
Exploratory Research:

• undertaken with the aim of clarifying ambiguous problems


• general problems usually known but not sufficiently
understood
• the purpose is to get more information, not to uncover
specific courses of action (subsequent research)

Determining a specific course of action to follow is not a


purpose of exploratory research!

Example: Child-Care support programme for employees


MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 4
Types of Research
Descriptive Research:

• undertaken with the aim of determining the characteristics


of a population or phenomenon
• Previous knowledge of problem exists
• High degree of precision or accuracy required

Examples:
Who are the main consumers of organic foods?
How many students read the prescribed course literature?
Where do most holiday-makers travelling overseas go?
When do petrol stations tend to raise their prices?
MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 5
Types of Research
Causal Research:

• undertaken with the aim of identifying cause and effect


relationships amongst variables
• are normally preceeded by exploratory and descriptive
research studies
• Often difficult to determine because of the influence of
other variables (concommitant Variation and the presence
of other hidden variables)

Example: Higher ice-cream consumption causes more


people to drown (indicative of a causal relationship (?))
MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 6
Stages in the Research Process
Define
Problem

Planning a Conclusions
Research Design and Report

Planning Processing and


a Sample Analysing the Data

Gathering
the Data

MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 7


Forward and Backward Linkages
 Forward Linkage – The earlier stages of a research
project determine the design at a later stage

Example: The goal of the research project will determine


the selection of the sample and the way data is collected

 Backward Linkage – The later stages of a research


project determine how its earlier stages are conducted

Example: The company executives require certain


specific information which the researcher anticipates and
for which he or she plans the data collection and analysis
steps accordingly
MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 8
Flowcharting the Research Process (1)
Problem Discovery

Selection of Secondary (historical) data


exploratory Pilot Study
research technique Experience Survey
Case Study

Problem Definition
(Statement of research objectives)

Survey (Interview, Questionnaire)


Selection of Experiment (Laboratory, Field)
basic research Secondary Data Study
method Observation

MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 9


Flowcharting the Research Process (2)

Survey (Interview, Questionnaire)


Experiment (Laboratory, Field) Collection of Data (Fieldwork)
Secondary Data Study
Observation
Editing and Coding Data

Sample Design Data Processing and Analysis

Probability Non-Probability Interpretation of Findings


Sampling Sampling

Report

MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 10


Ethical Considerations in Business
Research
• Ethics & Morals
• Societal norms and values
• Divergent perceptions of what is considered
ethical and unethical
• What is “ethical” in business research?
• Ethical Guidelines and professional
associations

MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 11


Ethical Interfaces in Business Research
Subjects’ Rights Clients’ Rights

Researchers’ Obligation Researchers’ Obligation

Research Research
Researcher
Subject Sponsor

Researchers’ Rights Researchers’ Rights

Subjects’ Obligation Clients’ Obligation

Subjects Rights & Clients Obligation


MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 12
Ethical Behavior Considerations:
Research Subjects
 Truthfulness in giving information to the researcher if a
research subject or respondent gives his or her consent
to participate in a research study

 Sustained cooperativeness with the researcher


throughout the course of the research study

 Adhere to responsibility if informed consent is given to


the researcher

 State any constraints or limitations in advance

MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 13


Ethical Behavior Considerations:
Researchers
 No deception, be forthright and do not conceal the true
purpose of the research
 Maintain objectivity, courtesy and high professional
standards through scientific process
 No falsification, alteration or misrepresentation of data
for political or other purposes
 Protect the confidentiality of the research subjects and
research sponsors
 No faulty conclusions
 No inclusion or use of information or ideas contained in
competing research proposals

MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 14


Ethical Behavior Considerations:
Research Sponsors
 No request for submission of competitive bids by
researchers if selection of the researcher has already
been made
 Avoid manipulation and influencing of the researcher
with a view to discrediting individuals or organizations
 The conclusions drawn from research work should be
consistent with the data and not influenced by other
undesirable conditions or motives
 Observe the confidentiality of the research subjects and
researcher
 Avoid Advocacy Research
MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 15
The Menace of Plagiarism

Please read the CIIT Academic Honesty


Policy compiled by Mr. Laeeq-ur-Rehman
Khan which is distributed in this class as a
separate sheet

ZERO TOLERANCE (and ZERO MARKS)


for cheating and plagiarism at COMSATS
Institute of Information Technology!

MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 16