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# Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 1

## (c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl

Example Rule 5
t
1
=6
1

1
12
10
11
3
9
3
7
7
8
2
6
4
3
5
4
..1
10
t
2
=9
2
4
5
j 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
t
j
6 9 4 5 4 2 3 7 3 1 10 1
PV
j
(5)
42 25 31 23 16 20 18 1 18 11 12 15
Cycle time c = 28 ->
m = 3 stations
BG = t
j
/ (3*28) = 0,655
S1 = {1,3,2,4,6}
S2 = {7,8,5,9,10,11}
S3 = {12}
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 2
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Example Regel 7, 6 und 2
= 3
m
j 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
PV
j
(7)
PV
j
(6)
PV
j
(2)
1 2
1
1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 10 3
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
2 6 9 4 5 4 3 7
Apply rule 7 (latest possible station) at first
If this leads to equally prioritized operatios -> apply rule 6 (minimum number
of stations for j and all predecessors)
If this leads to equally prioritized operatios -> appyl rule 2 (decreasing
processing times t
j
)
Solution: c = 28 m = 2; BG = 0,982
S1 = {1,3,2,4,5} ; S2 = {7,9,6,8,10,11,12}
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 3
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
More heuristic methods
Stochastic elements for rules 2 to 7:
Random selection of the next operation (out of the set of
operations ready to be applied)
Selection probabilities: proportional or reciprocally proportional to
the priority value
Randomly chosen priority rule
Enumerative heuristics:
Determination of the set of all feasible assignments for the first
station
Choose the assignment leading to the minimum idle time
Proceed the same way with the next station, and so on (greedy)
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 4
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Further heuristic methods
Heuristics for cutting&packing problems
Precedence conditions have to be considered as well
E.g.: generalization of first-fit-decreasing heuristic for the bin
packing problem.

Shortest-path-problem with exponential number of nodes

Exchange methods:
Exchange of operations between stations
Objective: improvement in terms of the subordinate objective of
equally utilized stations
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 5
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Worst-Case analysis of heuristics
Solution characteristics for integer c and t
j

(j = 1,...,n) for alternative 2:

Total workload of 2 neigboured stations has to exceed the cycle time

Worst-Case bounds for the deviation of a solution with m
Stations from a solution with m* stations:
( ) ( )
( ) 1 1 all for 1
1 1 all for 1
max
1
,...,m- k= c t S t
,...,m- k= c S t S t
k
k k
+ > +
+ > +
+
m/m* s 2 - 2/m* for even m and m/m* s 2 - 1/m* for odd m
m < cm*/(c - tmax + 1) + 1
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 6
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Determination of cyle time c
Given number of stations

Cycle time unknown
Minimize cycle time (alternative 1) or
Optimize cycle time together with the number of stations trying to
maximize the systems efficiency (alternative 3).
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 7
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Iterative approach for determination of
minimal cycle time
1. Calculate the theoretical minimal cycle time:

(or c
min
= t
max
if this is larger) and c = c
min

2. Find an optimal solution for c with minimum m(c) by applying
methods presented for alternative 1

3. If m(c) is larger than the given number of stations: increase c by A
(integer value) and repeat step 2.
(
(
(

=

stations of number
min
j
t
c
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 8
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Iterative approach for determination of
minimal cycle time
Repeat until feasible solution with cycle time s c and number of
stations s m is found

If A > 1, an interval reduction can be applied:
if for c a solution with number of stations s m has been found and for
c-A not, one can try to find a solution for c-A/2 and so on
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 9
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Example rule 5
m = 5 stations
Find: maximum production rate, i.e. minimum cycle time

j 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
t
j
6 9 4 5 4 2 3 7 3 1 10 1
PV
j
(5) 42 25 31 23 16 20 18 18 15 12 11 1
c
min
= Et
j
/m = 55/5 = 11 (11 > t
max
= 10)
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 10
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Example rule 5
Solution c = 11:
{1,3}, {2,6}, {4,7,9}, {8,5}, {10,11},
{12}
Needed: 6 > m = 5 stations

c = 12, assign operation 12 to
station 5
S5 = {10,11,12}
For larger problems: usually, c leading to an assignment for the given
number of stations, is much larger than c
min
. Thus, stepwise increase of
c by 1 would be too time consuming -> increase by A > 1 is
recommended.
t
1
=6
1

1
12
10
11
3
9
3
7
7
8
2
6
4
3
5
4
.1
10
t
2
=9
2
4
5
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 11
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Classification of complex line balancing
problems
Parameters:
Number of products
Assignment restrictions
Parallel stations
Equipment of stations
Station boundaries
Starting rate
Connection between items and transportation system
Different technologies
Objectives
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 12
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Number of products
Single-product-models:
1 homogenuous product on 1 assembly line
Mass production, serial production
Multi-product models:
Combined manufacturing of several products on 1 (or more) lines.
Mixed-model-assembly:
Products are variations (models) of a basic product
they are processed in mixed sequence
Lot-wise multiple-model-production:
Set-up between production of different products is necessary
Production lots (the line is balanced for each product separately)
Lotsizing and scheduling of products TSP
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 13
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Assignment restrictions
Restricted utilities:
Stations have to be equipped with an adequate quantity of utilities
Given environmental conditions
Positions:
Given positions of items within a station
some operation may not be performed then (e.g.: underfloor
operations)
Operations:
Minimum or maximum distances between 2 operations (concerning time
or space)
2 operations may not be assigned to the same station
Qualifications:
Combination of operations with similiar complexity
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 14
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Parallel stations
Models without parallel stations:
Heterogenuous stations with different operations serial line

Models with parallel stations:
At least 2 stations performing the same operation
Alternating processing of 2 subsequent operations in parallel stations

Hybridization: Parallelization of operations:
Assignment of an operation to 2 different stations of a serial line
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 15
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Equipment of stations
1-worker per station

Multiple workers per station:
Different workloads between stations are possible
Short-term capacity adaptions by using jumpers

Fully automated stations:
Workers are used for inspection of processes
Workers are usually assigned to several stations
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 16
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Station boundaries
Closed stations:
Expansion of station is limited
Workers are not allowed to leave the station during processing
Open stations:
Workers my leave their station in (rechtsoffen) or in reversed
(linksoffen) flow direction of the line
Short-term capacity adaption by under- and over-usage of cycle time.
E.g.: Manufacturing of variations of products
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 17
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Starting rate
Models with fixed statrting rate:
Subsequent items enter the line after a fixed time span.

Models with variable starting rate:
An item enters the line once the first station of the line is idle
Distances between items on the line may vary (in case of multiple-
product-production)
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 18
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Connection between items and
transportation systems
Unmoveable items:
Items are attached to the transportation system and may not be
removed
Maybe turning moves are possible

Moveable items:
Removing items from the transportation system during processing is
Post-production
Intermediate inventories

Flow shop production without fixed time constraints for each station
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 19
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Different technologies
Given production technologies
Schedules are given

Different technologies
Production technology is to be chosen
Different alternative schedules are given (precedence graph)
and/or

different processing times for 1 operation
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 20
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Objectives
Time-oriented objectives
Minimization of total cycle time, total idle time, ratio of idle time, total
waiting time
Maximization of capacity utilization (system`s efficieny) most relevant
for (single-product) problems
Equally utilized stations

Further objectives
Minimization of number of stations in case of given cycle time
Minimization of cycle time in case of given number of stations
Minimization of sum of weighted cycle time and weighted number of
stations

Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 21
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Objectives
Profit-oriented approaches:
Maximization of total marginal return
Minimization of total costs
Machines- and utility costs (hourly wage rate of machines depends on the
number of stations)
Labour costs: often identical rates of labour costs for all workers in all
stations)
Material costs: defined by output quantity and cycle time
Idle time costs: Opportunity costs depend on cycle time and number of
stations

Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 22
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Multiple-product-problems
Mixed model assembly:
Several variants of a basic product are processed in mixed
sequence on a production line.
Processing times of operations may vary between the models
Some operations may not be necessary for all of the variants
Determination of an optimal line balancing and of an optimal
sequence of models.
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 23
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
multi-model
Lot-wise
mixed-model
production
With machine set-up
Set-up from type X
to type Y after 2
weeks
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 24
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
mixed-model
Without set-up
Balancing for a
theoretical
average model
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 25
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Balancing mixed-model assembly lines
Similiar models:
Avoid set-ups and lot sizing
Consider all models simultaneously
Generalization of the basic model
Production of p models of 1 basic model with up to n operations;
production method is given
Given precedence conditions for operations in each model j = 1,...,n
aggregated precendence graph for all models
Each operation is assigned to exactly 1 station
Given processing times t
jv
for each operation j in each model v
Given demand b
v
for each model v
Given total time T of the working shifts in the planning horizon
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 26
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Balancing mixed-model assembly lines
Total demand for all models in planning horizon

Cumulated processing time of operation j over all
models in planning horizon:

=
=
p
v
v
b b
1
jv
p
v
v j
t b t

=
=
1
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 27
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
LP-Model
Aggregated model:
Line is balanced according to total time T of working shifts in the
planning horizon.

Same LP as for the 1-product problem, but cycle time c
is replaced by total time T
m ,..., k= ,...,n j=
S j
x
k
jk
1 and 1 all for
otherwise 0
operation if 1

e
=
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 28
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
LP-Model
Objective function:
( )
nk
m
k
x k x Z Minimize =
=
E
1
number of the last station (job n)
Constraints:

for all j = 1, ... , n ... Each job in 1 station

for all k = 1, ... , ... Total workload in station k

for all ... Precedence conditions

for all j and k
x
jk
k
m
=

=
1
1
x t
jk
j=
n
j
1

s T
k x k x
hk
k
m
jk
k
m
s
= =

1 1
{ } x ,
jk
e 01
( ) h,j E e
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 29
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Example
v = 1, b
1
= 4

v = 2, b
2
= 2

v = 3, b
3
= 1

aggregated model

t
12
=5
1
0
12
11
11
4
9
1
7
4
8
1
6
6
3
5
4
1
10
11
2
3
5
t
13
=8
1
3
12
8
11
1
9
3
7
13
8
4
6
0
3
5
4
1
10
13
2
2
5
t
11
=6
1

1
12
10
11
3
9
4
7
7
8
2
6
4
3
5
4
1
10
7
2
5
5
t
1
=42
1

7
12
70
11
21
9
21
7
49
8
14
6
28
3
35
4
7
10
63
2
28
5
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 30
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Example
Applying exact method:

given: T = 70

Assignment of jobs to stations with m = 7 stations:
S1 = {1,3}
S2 = {2}
S3 = {4,6,7}
S4 = {8,9}
S5 = {5,10}
S6 = {11}
S7 = {12}
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 31
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Parameters
... Workload of station k for model v in T

... Average workload of m stations for model v in T

Per unit:

... Workload of station k for 1 unit of model v

... Avg. workload of m stations for 1 unit of model v

Aggregated over all models:

... Total workload of station k in T
t
kv v jv jk
j
n
b t x =
=

1
t
v v jv
j
n
b t m =
=

/
1
' =
=

t
kv jv jk
j
n
t x
1
' =
=

t
v jv
j
n
t m /
1
t S t
k kv
v
p
( ) =
=

1
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 32
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Example parameters per unit
t

kv

Station
k
Avg.
Model v 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
t
`
v
1 10 7 11 10 6 10 1 7,86
2
3
11 11 7 8 4 0
8
7,43 11
13 12 14 3 8 3 8,71
x 4
x 2
x 1
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 33
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Example - Parameters
tkv

Station
k
Avg.
Model v 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
t
v
1 40 28 44 40 24 40 4 31,43
2
3
t(Sk) 70 63 70 70 35 70 7 55
22 14 16 8 22 0 14,86
8 12 13 14 3 8 3
22
8,71
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 34
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Conclusion
Station 5 and 7 are not efficiently utilized

Variation of workload t
kv
of stations k is higher for the models v as for
the aggregated model t(S
k
)

Parameters per unit show a high degree of variation for the models.
Model 3, for example, leads to an high utilization of stations 2, 3, and
4.

If we want to produce several units of model 3 subsequently, the average
cycle time will be exceeded -> the line has to be stopped

Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 35
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Avoiding unequally utilized stations
Consider the following objectives
Out of a set of solutions leading to the same (minimal) number of
stations m (1st objective), choose the one minimizing the
following 2nd objective:

...Sum of absolute deviation in utilization

Minimization by, e.g., applying the following greedy heuristic

= =
= A
p
v
v kv
m
k 1 1
t t
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 36
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Thomopoulos heuristic
Start: Deviation A = 0, k = 0

Iteration: until not-assigned jobs are available:

increase k by 1

determine all feasible assignments S
k
for the next station k

choose S
k
with the minimum sum of deviation

A = A + A(S
k
)

=
= A
p
v
v kv k
S
1
) ( t t
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 37
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Thomopoulos example
T = 70
m = 7

Solution:
9 stations (min. number of stations = 7):
S1 = {1}, S2 = {3,6}, S3 = {4,7}, S4 = {8}, S5 = {2},
S6 = {5,9}, S7 = {10}, S8 = {11}, S9 = {12}

Sum of deviation: A = 183,14
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 38
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Thomopoulos heuristic
Consider only assignments S
k
where workload t(S
k
)
exceeds a value (i.e. avoid high idle times).

Choose a value for :
small:
well balanced workloads concerning the models
Maybe too much stations
large:
Stations are not so well balanced
Rather minimum number of stations [very large maybe no
feasible assignment with t(S
k
) > ]
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 39
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Thomopoulos heuristic Example
= 49

Solution:
7 stations:
S1 = {2}, S2 = {1,5}, S3 = {3,4},
S4 = {7,9,10}, S5 = {6,8}, S6 = {11}, S7 = {12}

Sum of deviation: A = 134,57
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 40
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Exact solution
7 stations:
S1 = {1,3}, S2 = {2}, S3 = {4,5}, S4 = {6,7,9 }, S5 = {8,10},
S6 = {11}, S7 = {12}

Sum of deviation: A = 126

t
kv
Station k Avg.
Modelv 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
t
v
1 40 28 40 36 32 40 4 31,43
2 22 22 16 12 10 22 0 14,86
3 8 13 7 8 14 8 3 8,71
t(Sk) 70 63 63 56 56 70 7 55
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 41
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Further objectives
Line balancing depends on demand values b
j

Changes in demand Balancing has to be reivsed and
further machine set-ups have to be considered

Workaround:
Objectives not depending on demand

sum of absolute deviations in utilization per unit ' = ' '
= =

A t t
kv v
v
p
k
m
1 1
Layout and Design Kapitel 4 / 42
(c) Prof. Richard F. Hartl
Further objectives
Disadvantages of this objective:

Large deviations for a station (may lead to interruptions in
production). They may be compensated by lower deviations in
other stations

... Maximum deviation in utilization per unit A
max
,
max = ' '
k v
kv v
t t