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Heat and Temperature

Temperature measures the speed of the molecules
Celsius Scale
00C water freezes, 1000C water boils

Fahrenheit Scale
320F water freezes, 2120F water boils

Kelvin Scale0K
2730K water freezes, 3730K water boils ABSOLUTE Zero 00K

First Law of Thermodynamics

The first law of thermodynamics is the application of the conservation of energy principle to heat and thermodynamics

Enthalpy is a quotient or description of thermodynamic potential of a system, which can be used to calculate the heat transfer H = U(internal energy) + pV (pressure Volume)

The new variables often make the analysis of a system much simpler. For a gas, a useful additional state variable is the enthalpy which is defined to be the sum of the internal energy U plus the product of the pressure p and volume V. Using the symbol H for the enthalpy: .

Entropy is central to the second law of thermodynamics that over time, ignoring the effects of self-gravity, differences in temperature, pressure, and density tend to even out in a physical system that is isolated from the outside world. Entropy is a measure of how far along this evening-out process has progressed.

Internal Energy of a system Q amount of heat in joules Specific Heat (c)
Cal/grams (Chemistry/Earth Science) Joule per gram per 0C (Physics)
( J/Kg 0C )

Formula Q = m c D Tc

Sample Problem
How much heat is needed to raise the temperature of 30 kilograms of liquid water from 10 0C to 20 0C ?

Solution to heat problem

Q = m c D Tc (Physics)
= 30 Kg x 4.19 J/kg 0C x (20-10)0C
= 1,257J

Q = m c D Tc ( Earth Science Chemistry) = 30,000 x 1.0 cal/g 0C x (20-10)0C

= 30,000 gm x 1.0 cal/g 0C x (20-10)0C = 300,000 cal

Changes in state

Changes in State terms





Heating and Changes in Phase

HVAC systems transfer energy using phase changes to absorb and radiate HEAT

Changes in State
Heat of Fusion (Hf)
Conversion from Solid Liquid

Heat of Vaporization (Hv)

Conversion from Liquid Gas

Formula Q = m Hf or m Hv
Hf = 80 cal/g or 334 J/g Hv = 540 cal/g or 2260 J/g

Change in State Graph

Change in State 250



150 Temperature 100


0 0 10 20 Time ( Min ) 30 40

1. Copy this graph 2. Identify specific heat, heat of fusion, and heat of vaporization.

Change in State Areas

Calculate Heat of Fusion from a graph

Time in minutes

mass = 2.0 kg

rate of loss = 2.0 kJ/minute

Q = mHf
8,000 J = 2,000 g Hf 4 J/kg = Hf

Boiling and Freezing Points

What is the boiling point? What is the freezing point?

140 degrees Celsius 60 degrees Celsius

Sample Heat of Fusion

How much heat energy is needed to melt 5.0 kilograms of water at its melting point?
Q = m Hf (Physics) = 5 Kg x 334 J/Kg = 1,670J
Q = m Hf (Earth Science) =5.0 kg x 80 cal/g = 5000 g x 80 cal/g = 400,000 cal

Temperature is a measure of the activity of molecules. Heat is a measure of energy Specific Heat determines the amount of energy that a substance stores Heat of Fusion or Vaporization is a measure of the energy stored in the physical state of matter