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WELCOME TO PRINCIPAL ALL TEACHERS & STUDENTS

HYDRO POWER PLANT


PRESENTATION UNDER THE SUPERVISION OF

Mr. Asim Raza Mr. Syed Salim Ahmad


GOVT. COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY SITE KARACHI AFFILIATED WITH NED UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLGY

GROUP NO.1
1. ASIF MEHDI 08/EP-206

2. FARHANA TAJAMMUL
3. KAMRAN 4. KAMRAN AHMAD 5. KHALID IQBAL MALIK 6. MUHAMMAD ASAD 7. WAQAR HASSAN

08/EP-211
08/EP-217 08/EP-218 08/EP-219 08/EP-226 08/EP-235

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLGY (ELECTRICAL PASS) Batch-2007-08

HYDRO ELECTRIC POWER PLANT

WHAT IS HYDRO POWER? The objective of a hydropower scheme is to convert the potential energy of a mass of water, flowing in a stream with a certain fall to the turbine (termed the "head"), into electric energy at the lower end of the scheme, where the powerhouse is located. The power output from the scheme is proportional to the flow and to the head.

PENSTOCK RESEVOIR

POWER HOUSE

DAM
INTAKE

TURBINE

GENERATOR

POWER LINE

TRANSFORMER

ELEMENTS OF HYDRO POWER

FIRST ELEMENT :-

DAMS

The movement of water can be used to make electricity. Energy from water is created by the force of water moving from a higher elevation to a lower elevation through a large pipe (penstock). When the water

reaches the end of the pipe, it hits and spins a water wheel or turbine.
The turbine rotates the connected shaft, which then turns the generator, making electricity.

What are Spill ways?


A dam failure can have sever effects downstream of the dam. During the lifetime of a dam different flow conditions will be experienced

and a dam must be able to safely accommodate high floods that


can exceed normal flow conditions in the river. For this reason, carefully passages are corporated in the dams as part of structure. These passages are known as spillways.

2nd ELEMENT:-

INTAKE

INTAKE:A water intake must be able to divert the required amount of water in to a power canal or into a penstock without producing a negative impact on the local environment.

3rd ELEMENT:PENSTOCK

PENSTOCK
conveying water from the intake to the power house.

The water in the reservoir is considered stored energy


When the gate opens the water flowing through the

penstock becomes kinetic energy because it is in motion.

4th ELEMENT TURBINES

The water strikes and turns the large blades of a turbine, which is attached to a generator above it by way of a shaft. The most common type of turbine for hydropower plants is the Francis Turbine, which looks like a big disc with curved blades.

Tailraces:After passing through the turbine the water returns to the river trough a short canal called a tailrace.

5TH ELEMENT GENERATOR

As the turbine blades turn, so do a series of magnets inside the generator. Giant magnets rotate past copper coils, producing alternating current (AC) by moving electrons.

Inside the Generator:The heart of the hydroelectric power plant is the generator. The basic process of generating electricity in this manner is to rotate a series of magnets inside coils of wire. This process moves electrons, which produces electrical current.

Each generator is made of certain basic parts:


1. Shaft 2. Excitor 3. Rotor 4. Stator

As the turbine turns, the excitor sends an electrical current

to the rotor. The rotor is a series of large electromagnets


that spins inside a tightly-wound coil of copper wire, called

the stator. The magnetic field between the coil and the
magnets creates an electric current.

6TH ELEMENT:-

TRANSFORMERS

A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through a shared magnetic field. A changing current IP in the first circuit (the primary) creates a changing magnetic field; in turn, this magnetic field induces a voltage VS in the second circuit (the secondary). The secondary circuit mimics the primary circuit, but it need not carry the same current and voltage as the primary circuit. Instead, an ideal transformer keeps the product of the current and the voltage the same in the primary and secondary circuits.

7TH ELEMENT OUTFLOW:Used water is carried through pipelines, called tailraces,


and re-enters the river downstream.

8TH ELEMENT POWER HOUSE:-

POWER HOUSE AND EQUIPMENTS:In the scheme of hydropower the role of power house is to protect the electromechanical equipment that convert the potential energy of water into electricity.

Following are the equipments of power plant:


1.Valve 2.Turbine 3.Generator 4.Control System 5.Condensor 6.Protection System 7.DC emergency Supply 8.Power and current transformer

TRASH RACK
Almost all small hydroelectric plants have a trash rack cleaning machine, which removes material from water in order to avoid entering plant water ways and damaging electromechanical equipment.

A SIMPLE OVER VIEW:-

Flowing water creates energy that can be captured and turned into electricity. This is called hydropower.

Hydropower is currently the largest source of renewable power, generating nearly 10% of the electricity used in the United States.
The most common type of hydropower plant uses a dam on a river to store water in a reservoir. Water released from the reservoir flows through a turbine, spinning it, which, in turn, activates a generator to produce electricity.

But hydropower doesn't necessarily require a large dam. Some hydropower plants just use a small canal to channel the river water through a turbine.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND ITS MITIGATION

FINAL WORDS:We would like to pay our thanks to Mr. ASIM RAZA & Mr. SYED SALEEM AHMED who enabled us to present this documentation and very thanks to all fellows for listening, for any contact from group, you may contact,

hydropowerinfo@gmail.com