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PRESENTATION BY S.

VISWANATHAN

DEPUTY DIRECTOR
NATIONAL POWER TRAINING INSTITUTE (SR) NEYVELI

ANNUAL FUEL CONSUMPTION IN A TYPICAL COAL FIRED 210 MW UNIT


PLANT LOAD FACTOR 83.1%

L.D.O. H.F.O. TOTAL OIL COAL SPECIFIC OIL CONSUMPTION

180 K.L. 1180 KL 1360 KL 1053220 T 0.89 ML/KWHR

SPECIFIC COAL CONSUMPTION PLANT HEAT RATE

0.69 KG/KWHR

2479 KCAL/KWHR

COST OF GENERATION IN THERMAL POWER PLANTS


SL.NO. ELEMENT 1 FUEL 2 OPERATIONAL EXPENCES 3 REPAIR & MAINT. 4 TOTAL RUNNING COST 5 FIXED COST 6 GRAND TOTAL COST/KWHR 105.48 1.13 5.12 112.01 19.61 131.62 % 80.1 0.86 4.12 85.1 14.9 100

COST/KWHR

FUEL OPERATIONAL EXPENCES REPAIRS & MAINT. FIXED COST

COST OF INEFFICIENCY
Thr E Turbine Kcal/ heat rate kWh Boiler % Efficiency Change % Plant heat Kcal/ rate kWh 2000 86 2000 87 2000 88

-1

1
2479

Phr

2325.58 2298.85 2272.73

For 210 MW with 83% PLF

Units 1526.8 1526.8 1526.8 1526.8 Ug Generated Kwhr 68 68 68 *106 68 *106 Per Year *106 *106

Kc Kcal Kcal 3550.8 3510.0 3470.1 3785.1 required 558139 413793 545454 05772 Per Year 53*109 10*109 55*109 *109 Ug*Phr

With a Coal of 3600Kcal/Kg

Qc Coal required 10514 Per year T/Yr 986349 975011 963932 18 Kc/3600/ 1000 Taking coal cost Rs1400 per tonne Cc Cost of 138,08, 136,50, 134,95, 147,19 Coal Rs 88,372 16,092 04,545 85,578 Qc*1400

Change in Coal T/Yr 11337 required Change in cost of Rs Coal 1,58, 72,280

-11080 76407

1,55, 10,69, 11,546 69,486

PLANT OPTIMISATION
OBJECTIVE
A POWER PLANT MEETS ITS INSTRUCTED LOAD THROUGHOUT ITS LIFE AT MINIMUM COST

REQUIREMENT
ESTABLISH THE BESTWAY WITHIN CLOSE LIMITS TO OPERATE AND MAINTAIN THE STATION AND ENSURE THE LIMITS ARE ADHERED TO.

PLANT OPTIMISATION
RANGE OF DECISIONS TO BE OPTIMISED
WHAT IS THE BEST PLANT DESIGN? WHAT IS THE BEST FUEL TO BURN? HOW MANY STAFF ARE REQUIRED?

PLANT OPTIMISATION
. HOW SHOULD A COMPLETE STATION BE OPERATED AT STEADY LOAD? HOW SHOULD A INDIVIDUAL BOILER OR TURBINE BE OPERATED AT STEADY LOAD? HOW SHOULD A INDIVIDUAL BOILER OR TURBINE BE OPERATED AT TRANSIENT LOAD? HOW FREQUIENTLY SHOULD A PLANT BE CLEANED? HOW FREQUIENTLY SHOULD A PLANT BE SERVICED? CAN PLANT MODIFICATIONS OR OTHER EXPENDITURE BE JUSTIFIED BY IMPROVED PERFORMANCE?

PLANT OPTIMISATION
DECISIONS AFFECTING PLANT OPTIMISATION
UNCONTROLLABLE

SHORTTERM
DECISIONS UNDER CONTINUOUS CONTROL MEDIUMTERM DECISIONS MADE AT INTERVALS OF HOURS OR DAYS

LONGTERM DECISIONS MADE INTERVALS OF WEEKS OR MONTHS

DECISIONS AFFECTING PLANT OPTIMISATION


UNCONTROLLABLE
PLANT DESIGN FUEL QUALITY LOAD

DECISIONS AFFECTING PLANT OPTIMISATION


SHORTTERM -DECISIONS UNDER CONTINUOUS CONTROL
OPERATING PARAMETERS Viz..STEAM PRESSURE,TEMPERATURE,AIR FLOW ETC. LOADING OF AUXILLIARIES

DECISIONS AFFECTING PLANT OPTIMISATION


MEDIUMTERM -DECISIONS MADE AT INTERVALS OF HOURS OR DAYS
SOOT BLOWING CONDENSER CLEANING MILL CLASSIFIER VANES ADJUSTMENTS

DECISIONS AFFECTING PLANT OPTIMISATION


LONGTERM- DECISIONS MADE INTERVALS OF WEEKS OR MONTHS
SERVICING OF PLANT REPLACEMENT OF WORNOUT PARTS PLANT MODIFICATIONS

REQUIREMENT FOR EFFICIENCY AND PERFORMANCE MONITORING


KNOWLEDGE ON VARIOUS FACTORS INFLUENCING PERFORMANCE COLLECTION OF SAMPLES MEASUREMENT OF VARIOUS PARAMETERS CALCULATION AND OBTAINING RESULTS INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS OPTIMISATION AND IMPLEMENTATION

KEY AREAS OF BOILER PERFORMANCE


CONVERSION EFFICIENCY
-BOILER EFFICIENCY
-AUXILIRY POWER

BOILER AS PART OF SYSTEM


-EFFECT OF BOILER PARAMETERS
-SPECIFIC OIL CONSUMPTION

LONG TERM CAPABILITY


-CAPACITY REDUCTION

LOSSES ENCOUNTERED IN BOILER


CONTROLLABLE

COMBUSTIBLE IN ASH LOSS DRY GAS LOSS CO IN FLUE GAS MILL REJECTS LOSS
MOISTURE IN FUEL HYDROGEN IN FUEL AIR MOISTURE SENSIBLE HEAT IN ASH

UN CONTROLLABLE

RADIATION AND UNACCOUNTED

AREAS CONTRIBUTING TO VARIOUS LOSSES IN A BOILER


COMBUSTION IN BOILER AIRHEATER PERFORMANCE MILL PLANT PERFORMANCE FANS WATER LOSSES

FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE OF COMBUSTION


SURFACE CONTACT AREA OF FUEL WITH AIR AIR-FUEL RATIO RETENTION TIME COMBUSTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE TURBULANCE IN COMBUSTION CHAMBER REMOVAL OF PRODUCTS OF COMBUSTION

CARBON LOSS
HEAT LOSS DUE TO UNBURNT CARBON LEAVING THE BOILER ALONG WITH EITHER BOTTOM ASH OR FLY ASH

FACTORS AFFECTING CARBON LOSS


1 AIR DISTRIBUTION
DISTRIBUTION EXCESS AIR

2 PARTICLE SIZE
MILL FINENESS -200 MILL FINENESS +50

3 COAL QUALITY
VOLATILE MATTER

4 COMBUSTION
TIME TEMPERATURE TURBULANCE

AIR DISTRIBUTION

SY.AIR

FUEL
SY.AIR

FUEL
SY.AIR

FUEL
SY.AIR

FUEL
SY.AIR

GOOD AIR DISTRIBUTION

AIR DISTRIBUTION
EXCESS AIR
AIR SUPPLIED IN ADDITION TO STOCHIOMETRIC AIR FOR COMPLETE COMBUSTION OF FUEL

OPTIMUM EXCESS AIR DEPENDS ON


FUEL QUALITY FIRING SYSTEM DESIGN

AIR DISTRIBUTION
EXCESS AIR LESS THAN OPTIMUM RESULTS
INCREASED CARBON IN ASH

PARTICLE SIZE
COARSER THE FUEL PARTICLE MORE THE CARBON LOSS MAINTAIN OPTIMUM FUEL SIZE BY PERIODICALLY MONITORING P.F.SIZE OPTIMUM FINENESS FOR H.V.SUB BITUMINOUS COAL
100% THROUGH 50 MESH 90% THROUGH 100 MESH 70% THROUGH 200 MESH

VOLATILE MATTER
LOWER THAN DESIGNED VALUE NEEDS MORE TIME FOR COMPLETE COMBUSTION WHICH FURNACE CAN NOT PROVIDE LEADS TO INCREASED COMBUSTIBLES IN ASH REMEDY
BLENDING OF COAL

COMBUSTION
TIME
SUFFICIENT RETENTION TIME MUST BE ALLOWED FOR THE FUEL TO STAY INSIDE THE FURNACE TO COMPLETE COMBUSTION TIME REQUIRED/AVAILABLE DEPENDS
FUEL TYPE,QUALITY,SIZE FURNACE SIZE VELOCITY
DRAUGHT

COMBUSTION
TEMPERATURE
EFFECTS THERMAL DIFFUSION OF REACTING MOLECULES DUE TO INCREASED VELOCITY OF MOLECULES WITH INCREASE IN TEMPERATURE INFLUENCE THE RATE OF REACTION

FACTORS AFFECTING TEMPERATURE


HEAT ABSORBED BY FURNACE HEAT ABSORBED BY REACTANTS TO BRING THEM TO IGNITION TEMPERATURE HEAT ABSORBED BY NITROGEN IN AIR

COMBUSTION
TURBULANCE
MECHANICAL AGITATION OF REACTANTS TO BRING THEM INTO PHYSICAL CONTACT REQUIREMENT IS MORE AT FINAL STAGE OF COMBUSTION LESSER THE TURBULANCE MORE CARBON LOSS DEPENDS
WIND BOX TO FURNACE DIFF.PR.IN CORNER FIRED BOILERS TERTIARY AIR IN WALL FIRED BOILERS

DRY FLUE GAS LOSS


HEAT CARRIED AWAY BY THE DRY CONSTITUENTS OF FLUE GAS THROUGH THE CHIMNEY

DRY FLUE GAS LOSS


HEAT CARRIED AWAY BY DRY FLUE GAS SHD WHERE WD CP TG TA WEIGHT OF DRY FLUE GAS Kgm/Kgf SPECIFIC HEAT OF DRY FLUE GAS Kcal/Kgm0C GAS TEMPERATURE AT AIR HEATER OUTLET 0C AMBIENT TEMPERATURE 0C
= (SHD/C.V.)*100 %

= WD*CP*(TG - TA) Kcal/Kgf

DRY FLUEGAS LOSS WHERE

SHD - HEAT CARRIED AWAY BY DRY FLUE GAS Kcal/Kgf C.V. - CALORIFIC VALUE OF FUEL Kcal/Kgf

CALCULATION OF DRY FLUE GAS WEIGHT


C+O2 CO2 ; i.e. 12+32=44 44 Kg OF C02 CONTAINS 12 Kg OF C 1 Kg OF CO2 CONTAINS 12/44 = 3/11 Kg OF C
2C+O2 2CO ; i.e. 24+32=56 24 Kg OF C

56 Kg OF CO CONTAINS

1 Kg OF CO CONTAINS 24/56 = 3/7 Kg OF C

TOTAL DRY FLUE GAS = Kg CARBON * DRY F.G/Kg.'C' BURNT DRY F.G/Kg.'C' BURNT = TOTAL DRY FLUE GAS/Kg.'C' IN F.G.

CALCULATION OF DRY FLUE GAS CALCULATION OF DRY FLUE GAS WEIGHT WEIGHT
WHEN DRY F.G.CONTAINS CO2% OF CARBON-DI-OXIDE AND CO% OF CARBON MONOXIDE BY WEIGHT
Kg OF CARBON IN F.G = 3/11 CO2 + 3/7 CO

WHEN CO2% AND CO% IN FLUE GAS ARE MEASURED IN VOLUME BASIS Kg OF CARBON IN F.G = 3/11(44CO2%)+3/7(28CO%) = 12(CO2%+ CO%)

DRY F.G./Kg 'C' BURNT = TOTAL DRY F.G/ Kg. OF 'C' IN F.G = 100/12(CO2%+CO%)Kg.mol
CARBON BURNT = C/100 - U Where C-% OF CARBON IN FUEL U- CARBON IN ASH Kg/Kg OF FUEL

CALCULATION OF DRY FLUE GAS CALCULATION OF DRY FLUE GAS WEIGHT WEIGHT
DRY FLUE GAS = 100 (C/100)-U/12(CO2%+CO%) Kgmol/Kg.fuel
IF SIGNIFICANT AMOUNT OF SULPHUR IS PRESENT AND SO2 IS ALSO TAKEN INTO ACCOUNT THE CARBON EQUIVALENT OF SULPHUR WILL BE ADDED AS S*12/32 = S/2.67 WHERE 'S' IS % SULPHUR IN FUEL
DRY FLUE GAS=100(C/100)+(S/267)-U/12(CO2%+CO%) Kgmol/Kg.fuel =C+(S/2.67)-100U/12(CO2%+CO%) Kgmol/Kg.fuel

CALCULATION OF DRY FLUE GAS WEIGHT WITH O2 DRY


C H S OX U CARBON HYDROGEN SULPHUR OXYGEN UNBURNT CARBON/Kg OF FUEL STOCHIOMETRIC AIR 2.6664*(C100*U)+7.937*H+S-Ox
OXYGEN IN FLUE GAS EXCESS AIR (O2/21-O2)*100 Wt. OF EXCESS AIR QSA* EA/100
MOL.WT.OF AIR

% % % % Kg

36.92 2.60 0.28 7.51 0.001

QSA

Kg/Kg fuel 4.8051

O2 EA
QXA
MWA

% %

6 40

Kg/Kg fuel 1.9220


Kg/ Kgmol 28.966

MEA

MOLS OF EXCESS AIR Kgmol/Kg QXA/ MWA fuel

0.0664

MO2

MOLS OF O2 IN EXCESS AIR MEA*20.95/100


DRY GAS WT. PER Kg OF FUEL MO2/ O2 *100

Kgmol/Kg fuel
Kgmol/Kg fuel

0.0139

MDG

0.2317

CALCULATION OF DRY FLUE GAS WEIGHT WITH O2 DRY


C H S OX U QSA CARBON HYDROGEN SULPHUR OXYGEN UNBURNT CARBON/Kg OF FUEL STOCHIOMETRIC AIR 2.6664*(C100*U)+7.937*H+S-Ox OXYGEN IN FLUE GAS EXCESS AIR (O2/21-O2)*100 Wt. OF EXCESS AIR QSA* EA/100 MOL.WT.OF AIR MOLS OF EXCESS AIR QXA/ MWA MOLS OF O2 IN EXCESS AIR MEA*20.95/100 DRY GAS WT. PER Kg OF FUEL MO2/ O2 *100 % % % % Kg 36.92 2.60 0.28 7.51 0.001

Kg/Kg fuel 4.8051

O2 EA QXA MWA MEA MO2

% %

6 40

Kg/Kg fuel 1.9220 Kg/ Kgmol 28.966 Kgmol/Kg 0.0664 fuel Kgmol/Kg 0.0139 fuel Kgmol/Kg fuel 0.2317

MDG

O2 MEASUREMENT
DRY BASIS
MEASURED THROUGH ORSAT APPARATUS

WET BASIS
MEASURED THROUGH ONLINE ANALYSERS LIKE ZIRCONIA PROBE

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN WET AND DRY O2% IN FLUE GAS


COAL FIRED BOILERS OIL/GAS FIRED BOILERS - 0.2% - 0.6% to1.0%

FACTORS AFFECTING DRY FLUEGAS LOSS


COAL QUALITY
MOISTURE CARBON CALORIFIC VALUE

AIR INLET TEMPERTATURE


AMBIENT TEMPERTURE SCAPH

FLUE GAS QUANTITY


EXCESS AIR AH LEAKAGE

FACTORS AFFECTING DRY FLUEGAS LOSS


FLUEGAS OUTLET TEMPERTATURE
AIR HEATER LEAKAGE AH ENTERING AIR TEMPERATURE AH ENTERING GAS TEMPERATURE
BOILER LOAD FW TEMPERATURE X RATIO OF AH TEMPERING AIR AIR INGRESS

COAL QUALITY
VARIATION IN COAL QUALITY VARIES AIR REQUIREMENT AND HENCE DRY FLUE GAS WEIGHT VARIATION IN CALORIFIC VALUE VARIES THE %LOSS CALCULATION
UN CONTROLLABLE FACTORS

EFFECTS ARE NEED TO BE DETERMINED BEFORE ANALYSING CONTROLLABLE FACTORS

AIR INLET TEMPERTATURE


AMBIENT TEMPERTURE
INCREASE IN AMBIENT TEMPERATURE BRING DOWN HEAT CARRIED AWAY BY DRYGAS AFFECT AIR HEATER PERFORMANCE UNCONTRLLABLE

SCAPH
CONTINUOUS SERVICE OF SCAPH INCREASE TA BUT AT THE SAME INCREASE TG ALSODUE TO A.H.PERFORMANCE DETORIATION INCREASED LOSSES DUE TO STEAM CONSUMPTION IN SCAPH

FLUE GAS QUANTITY


EXCESS AIR
MORE THAN OPTIMUM INCREASES WD AND SO DRY GAS LOSS LESS THAN OPTIMUM INCREASES CARBON LOSS OPTIMUM EXCESS AIR IS DETERMINED THROUGH FIELD TESTS OPTIMUM EXCESS AIR CAN BE MAINTAINED THROUGH F.G. ANALYSIS

LOSS DUE TO HIGH EXCESS OXYGEN


60
50 40 30 20

10
0

1 2 3 4 INCREASE OF EXCESS OXYGEN %

1% INCREASE IN EXCESS OXYGEN WILL LEAD TO AN ANNUAL LOSS OF Rs. 38.23 LAKHS FOR A210 MW UNIT

FLUE GAS QUANTITY


AH LEAKAGE
INCREASE DRY GAS WEIGHT DECREASE A.H. GAS OUTLET TEMPERATURE INCREASE DRY GAS LOSS AND DECREASE A.H. PERFORMANCE

FLUEGAS OUTLET TEMPERTATURE


AH ENTERING AIR TEMPERATURE
FOR EVERY 30C RISE IN AIR INLET TEMPERATURE GAS OUTLET TEMPERATURE RISES BY 20C

AH ENTERING GAS TEMPERATURE


FOR EVERY 30C RISE IN GAS INLET TEMPERATURE GAS OUTLET TEMPERATURE RISES BY 10C

LOSS DUE TO HIGH F.G. TEMP.AT A.H. OUTLET

50 45
40 35 30

INCREASE IN F.G.TEMP. AT A.H. OUTLET BY 100C WILL LEAD TO

25

AN ANNUAL
20 15

LOSS OF Rs.1CRORE FOR A 210 MW UNIT

10
5 0 5 10 15 20 0C INCREASE IN A.H. OUTLET TEMP

AIR HEATER PERFORMANCE


GAS OUTLET TEMPERATURE LOWER THAN OPTIMUM
LEADS TO COLD END CORROSION
LOSS OF HEAT TRANSFER ELEMENTS

GAS OUTLET TEMPERATURE HIGHER THAN OPTIMUM


MORE DRY GAS LOSS RISE OF 220C ABOVE OPTIMUM REDUCE BOILER EFFICIENCY BY 1% 20C RISE ABOVE OPTIMUM RESULTS LOSS OF 600Kcal HEAT IN 1 TONNE OF F.G.

LOWER THAN HIGHER THAN OPTIMUM OPTIMUM QTY. OF AIR PASSING THROUGH
LIGHTING AND FIRING COLD BOILER
USE SCAPH

FACTORS AFFECTING A.H. GAS OUTLET TEMPERATURE


A.H.
TEMPERING AIR SETTING INFILTRATION BYPASS DAMPERS PASSING

AIR LEAKAGE

TEMP.OF GAS ENTERING A.H


DEPOSITS ON BOILER HEAT TRANSFER AREAS DELAYED/SY.COMBUSTION FEED WATER TEMP

SEALS CONDITON DIFF. PR. BETWEEN AIR AND F.G

FOULED / CORRODED ELEMENTS DEFECTIVE BAFFLES QTY.OFGAS PASSING THROUGH A.H.

AIR HEATER PERFORMANCE TESTS


REQUIREMENTS
CHECKING ACTUAL PERFORMANCE AGAINST MANUFACTURERS GUARANTEE COMPARISON WITH A STANDARD OF OPERATION COMPARING PERFORMANCE WHEN FIRING DIFFERENT FUELS DETERMINING THE EFFECTS OF CHANGES TO EQUIPMENT DETERMINING CORRECTIONS TO A.H. EXITGAS TEMP. CAUSED BY VARIATIONS IN INLET TEMP. IN AN EFFICIENCY TEST OF A BOILER

AIR HEATER PERFORMANCE TESTS


PERFORMANCE ITEMS DETERMINED
GAS SIDE EFFICIENCY AIR LEAKAGE X-RATIO GAS AND AIR TEMPERATURE CORRECTIONS GAS AND AIRPRESSURE LOSS

DATA REQUIRED FOR A.H. PERFORMANCE TESTS


TEMP.OF AIR ENTERING TEMP.OF AIR LEAVING TEMP.OF GAS ENTERING TEMP.OF GAS LEAVING QTY. OF AIR ENTERING QTY. OF HEATED AIR LEAVING AIR SIDE INLET AND OUTLET STATIC PRESSURE AIR SIDE INLET AND OUTLET VELOCITY PRESSURE GAS SIDE INLET AND OUTLET STATIC PRESSURE GAS SIDE INLET AND OUTLET VELOCITY PRESSURE GAS ANALYSIS OF F.G.ENTERING AND LEAVING A.H HUMIDITY OF INLET AIR

DATA REQUIRED FOR A.H. PERFORMANCE TESTS


QTY. OF GAS ENTERING A.H. QTY. OF GAS LEAVING A.H. QTY. OF FUEL MEASURED OR COMPUTED ULTIMATE ANALYSIS OF COAL QTY. OF ATOMISING STEAM IF BURNING OIL

AIR HEATER CALCULATIONS


GAS SIDE EFFICIENCY
G
=

{(tG14-tG15(NL))/(tG14-tA8)}*100

WHERE tG14 - MEASURED GAS TEMP. ENTERING A.H. tA8 - MEASURED AIR TEMP. ENTERING A.H tG15(NL) - CALCULATED GAS TEMP LEAVING
A.H. CORRECTED FOR NO AIR LEAKAGE

HEAT BALANCE FOR LEAKING AIR IN AIR HEATER


HEAT GAINED BY LEAKING AIR=HEAT LOST BY F.G

HEAT GAINED BY LEAKING AIR=HEAT REQUIRED TO RISE TEMP. OF LEAKING AIR (t A8) TO GAS OUTLET TEMP.( tG15)
=A (L)*CpA*(tG15- tA8) WHERE A (L) - % AIR LEAKING CpA - Sp.HEAT OF AIR

HEAT BALANCE FOR LEAKING AIR IN AIR HEATER


HEAT LOST BY F.G =HEAT LOST TO BRING DOWN THE GAS TEMP. FROM IF THERE IS NO LEAK (tG15(NL)) TO ACTUAL GAS TEMP. ( tG15)
=100*CpG*( tG15(NL) - tG15 ) WHERE CpG - Sp.HEAT OF F.G.

100*CpG*( tG15(NL) - tG15 )


tG15(NL)

A (L)*CpA*(tG15- tA8)

= [{A (L)*CpA*(tG15- tA8)}/ 100*CPg ] + tG15

AIR HEATER LEAKAGE A(L) =[WET AIR LEAKAGE/WET GAS ENTERING A.H]*100 =[{WG15-WG14}/WG14]*100

BY EMPRICAL APPROXIMATION A(L) =90*{%CO2 ENTERING A.H.-%CO2 LEAVING A.H.}/ %CO2 LEAVING A.H.

EFFECT OF VARIOUS PARAMETERS ON A.H. GAS SIDE EFFICIENCY


AIR INLET TEMP.IN ALL CASES 300C
CASE GAS INLET TEMP. 0 C 400 400 400 400 430 GAS OUTLET TEMP. 0 C 140 155 140 155 165 LEAKAGE EFFICIENCY % % 13 13 20 20 20 66.5 62.2 64.6 59.7 59.8

IDEAL 1 2 3 4

EFFECT OF COMPONENT ON DRY GAS LOSS / EFFICIENCY


Gcv Gross calorific value of fuel

Kcal/kg % % Kg % Kgmol/kg

3689.10 3689.10 36.92 0.28 0.0066 13 0.2331 36.92 0.28 0.0066 12 0.2525 7.31 155 35 120 6.00 -0.46

3689.10 36.92 0.28 0.0066 13 0.2331 7.31 165 35 130 6.00

C S U

Carbon in fuel Sulphur in fuel Unburnt carbon/kg fuel CO2 Carbon di oxide in flue gas Wd Dry gas wt. Per kg of fuel Sp.ht Specific heat Tg Gas temperature leaving boiler Ta Ambient temperature DT Tg-Ta L1 Dry gas loss Change in loss for 1% CO2 100C

Kcal/kgmol 7.31 / 0c 0 C 155


0

35 120 5.54

C % %

-0.46

EFFECTS OF TRAMP AIR TO BOILER


NOT CONTRIBUTING TO COMBUSTION OFTEN IT IS COLD INCREASE GAS VELOCITY THROUGH E.S.P BYPASSING A.H. INCREASED GAS OUTLET TEMPERATURE

SOURCES OF AIR INGRESS


ASH HOPPER SEALS ASH HOPPER DOOR LEFT OPEN DEFECTIVE EXPANSION JOINTS DUCT OPENINGS UNCOVERED BOILER ROOF SEALS DEFECTIVE ATTEMPERATING AIR DAMPERS PASSING A.H.AIR BYPASSING DAMPERS PASSING SUCTION MILLING PLANT WORN SHAFT SEAL ON EXHAUSTERS

X RATIO
HEAT CAPACITY OF AIR PASSING THROUGH A.H. X RATIO = -------------------------------------------------------------------------HEAT CAPACITY OF GAS PASSING THROUGH A.H.

WA9*CpA*(tA9 - tA8)

WG14*CpG*(tG14 - tG15(NL))

WA9*CpA (tG14 - tG15(NL)) X RATIO = ------------- = -----------------WG14*CpG (tA9 - tA8)

CpA / CpG = 0.95

INDICATION OF AIR BY PASSING A.H

EFFECT OF BYPASSING AIR ON F.G. TEMP. LEAVING A.H

EFFECT OF AIR BYPASSING AH ON X RATIO AND GAS TEMP. Qg Gas quantity entering A.H. Qa Air quantity leaving A.H. Xr X ratio Qa*95/Qg Tgi Gas temp. entering A.H. Tai Air temp. entering A.H. Tao Air temp. leaving A.H. Tgo Gas temp. leaving A.H. without leakage Tgi-[ Xr*( Tao- Tai )] VARIATION Aef A.H.Efficiency T/hr T/hr
0 0

700

700

700

C C 0 C 0 C

500 475 525 0.68 0.64 0.71 330 330 330 35 35 35 310 311 309 143.39 152.08 134.78

63

8.69 60

- 8.62 66

CALCULATING AIR INGRESS % Qg Gas quantity at A.H.inlet Qaf Air quantity based on excess air at A.H.inlet Xr A.H.Xratio Qa Air quantity leaving A.H. Xr*Qg/0.95 Qat Tempering air quantity from mill heat balance Qi Air ingress quantity Qaf-Qat-Qa % Air ingress T/hr 700 T/hr 650 0.7 T/hr 515.79 T/hr 100 T/hr 34.21 5.26

MILL PERFORMANCE FACTORS


P.F. FINENESS
CARBON LOSS MILL POWER CONSUMPTION

COAL-AIR RATIO MILL REJECTS

EFFECTS OF P.F.FINENESS
TOO COARSE
WEAR IN COAL PIPE SLOWER IGNITION POOR FIREBALL MIXING UNSTABLE FLAME FRONT AT LOW LOADS HIGH CARBON LOSS

TOO FINE
INCREASED WEAR OF PULVERISER DECREASED PULVERISER OUTPUT INCREASED POWER CONSUMPTION 1% CHANGE IN FINENESS EQUALS APPROXIMATELY 1.5% IN CAPACITY

PROCEDURE FOR CHECKING COAL FINENESS


PERIODICALLY COLLECT COAL SAMPLE FROM ALL PIPE LINES OF A MILL IN TWO PLANES USING STANDARD PROBE BEFORE COLLECTING SAMPLE ENSURE
MILL IS RUNNING AT MORE THAN 75% LOAD MILL IS RUNNING AT A STEADY LOAD FOR 30 MINUTES NO LOAD CHANGE TAKES PLACE DURING SAMPLE COLLECTION

PROCEDURE FOR CHECKING COAL FINENESS


MIX ALL THE SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM A MILL HOMOGENEOUSLY TAKE REQUIRED MASS OF SAMPLE BY CONING AND QUARTERING CONDUCT SIEVE ANALYSIS ON THE SAMPLE OPTIMUM FINENESS
100% THROUGH 50 MESH 90% THROUGH 100 MESH 70% THROUGH 200 MESH

PROCEDURE FOR CHECKING COAL FINENESS


DEPENDING ON THE RESULT ADJUST THE CLASSIFIER VANES TO INCREASE FINENESS
MOVE THE VANES TOWARDS CLOSED POSITION

TO DECREASE FINENESS
MOVE THE VANES TOWARDS OPEN POSITION

AFTER ADJUSTING RECHECK FINENESS IF NECESSARY


ADJUST RING TO ROLL CLEARANCE ADJUST PRESSURE SPRING REPLACE GRINDING ELMENTS

EFFECTS OF COAL AIR RATIO


HIGH AIR FLOW
AFFECTS COAL CLASSIFICATION REDUCES DISCHARGE OF PYRITES INCREASES COAL PIPE EROSION AFFECTS IGNITION POINT MORE P.A. FAN POWER CONSUMPTION

LOW AIR FLOW


INCREASES COAL PIPE SPILLAGE CAUSES DRIFTING IN COAL PIPE AND ULTIMATE COAL PIPE CHOKING

CLEAN AIR FLOW TEST


DETERMINES
WHETHER THERE IS ENOUGH AIR TO TRANSPORT THE COAL AIR FLOW DISTRIBUTION IN COAL PIPES COAL PIPE OBSTRUCTION

METHOD
P IS MEASURED BY PITOT TUBE IN COAL PIPE AT 0.935R, 0.791R, 0.612R, AND 0.354R WHERE 'R' IS THE RADIUS OF PIPE IN INCHES

CLEAN AIR FLOW TEST


PV AIR VELOCITY = 18.275 [ ----------------------------1.326 Pb +0.0735 PS { ------------------} 460+T WHERE PV Pb PS T - PITOT TUBE DIFF.PR.IN INCHES OF WC. - BAROMETRIC PRESSURE IN INCHES OF Hg. - STATIC PRESSURE IN INCHES OF WC. - TEMPERATURE IN 0F
M/s

0.5 ]

Ft/s

PV 0.5 AIR VELOCITY = 5.5702 [ ---------------------------------------- ] 18.7113 Pb / 25.4 + PS /345.34 ( -------------------------- ) 273.3 + T WHERE PV Pb PS T - PITOT TUBE DIFF.PR.IN mm. OF WC. - BAROMETRIC PRESSURE IN mm OF Hg. - STATIC PRESSURE IN mm OF WC. - TEMPERATURE IN 0C

CLEAN AIR FLOW TEST


AIR FLOW = 0.32725*D2*V* lbs/min D - DIA. OF PIPE IN INCHES V - AIR VELOCITY ft/s -AIR DENSITY

DESIRED RESULTS

MEASURED AIR FLOW BETWEEN 135% AND 160% OF STANDARD AIR FLOW

MEASURED AIR VELOCITIES ARE WITHIN 5% OF AVERAGE VELOCITIES

CAUSES OF MILL REJECTS


LOW AIR VELOCITY
LOW AIR FLOW AIR BYPASSING

HIGH RE CIRCULATION RATIO


WEAR OF GRINDING ELEMENTS IMPROPER SETTING OF GRINDING ELEMENTS IMPROPER SPRING COMPRESSION OPERATING MILL WITH HIGHER FINENESS HIGH MOISTURE COAL/LOW MILL OUTLET TEMPERATURE

CAUSES OF MILL REJECTS


OVER FEEDING EXCEEDING MILL CAPACITY
MALFUNCTIONING OF FEEDER OR FEEDER HINGE GATE HIGH RPM OF FEEDER REDUCTION IN MILL CAPACITY

EFFECTS OF REJECTS
REDUCTION IN BOILER EFFICIENCY DETORIARATION OF DUST GUARD SEAL OIL CONTAMINATION RESULTING DAMAGE TO MILL DRIVE COMPONENTS

MILL PLANT REQUIREMENTS


MUST BE ABLE TO HANDLE DESIGN QUANTITY COAL AND PRODUCE AN ACCEPTABLE PRODUCT EVEN WITH WORN OUT COMPONENTS P.F.MUST BE WITHIN DESIRED GRINDING RANGE AT ALL STABLE LOADS WET COAL UPTO DESIGN WETNESS MUST BE ADEQUATELY DRIED WHILE FULL OUTPUT IS MAINTAINED AT NO TIME MUST IT BE NECESSARY TO OPERATE THE MILLING PLANT IN AN UNSAFE CONDITION

DRYING CAPACITY
Wf = AO*(TI-TO)*4.043*10-04/MC*(1+)
WHERE

Wf - COAL THROUGHPUT Kg/s AO - AIR FLOW AT MILL OUTLET Kg/s - LEAKAGE FACTOR =(AO-AI)/AI AI - AIR FLOW AT MILL INLET Kg/s TI - AIR TEMPERATURE AT MILL INLET 0C TO - COAL-AIR TEMP. AT MILL OUTLET 0C MC - TOTAL MOISTURE FRACTION OF COAL

MILL PLANT CONSTRAINTS


GRINDING LIMIT
GRINDABLITY INDEX MILL MOTOR CAPACITY

P.F.FALL OUT LIMIT


MIN. VEL. OF COAL-AIR 18 TO 20Kg/s

EROSION LIMIT
1.5 TIMES OF FALL OUT LIMIT

FLAMMABLITY
SAFE AIR/FUEL RATIO 5:1

FLAME STABLITY
MINIMUM THROUGHPUT NOT LESS THAN 50%

ATTEMPERATION
MINIMUM AIR TEMP. CONSTANT

MILL OPERATING WINDOW


BASIC DATA
COAL TYPE - BITUMINOUS TOTAL MOISTURE - 24% MAXM; 14% NOMINAL COAL FLOW -12Kg/s(MAX.);10.3Kg/s NOMINAL GRADING - 94% < 150 m HOT AIR TO MILL TEMP. -2950C(MAX); 2000C(MIN) AIR FLOW TO MILL - 30.2Kg/s SEAL AIR FLOW TO MILL - 0.5Kg/s at 150C RATED P.A. FAN POWER - 406kw at 42.7Kg/s FLOW MINIMUM AIR FLOW - 21Kg/s EROSION LIMIT - 33 Kg/s AIR-FUEL MIXTURE TEMP. -700C

MILL OPERATING WINDOW


LIMITING VALUES
MAX.COAL THROUGHPUT-12Kg/s at 94% 150 m
STABLITY 0.5*12=6 Kg/s COAL FLOW EXPLOSION LIMIT AT 5:1 AIR/FUEL RATIO FAN POWER Wf +Wa =12 + 30.2 + 5 =42.7 Kg/s FALL OUT - MIN. AIR FLOW -21 Kg/s EROSION LIMIT - 33 Kg/s FOR DRYING LIMIT AT 2900C AIR TEMP. & 24% MOISTURE = (30.7-30.2)/30.2 =0.017

= AO*(TI-TO)*4.043*10-04/MC*(1+) = AO*(290-70)*4.043*10-04/(0.24*1.017) = 0.36*AO AO = 2.7 Wf AIR/FUEL RATIO = 2.7: 1 Wf


AT 2000C AIR TEMP. & 14% MOISTURE AIR/FUEL RATIO = 4.6: 1

COSTS OF WATER
RAW WATER COSTS PUMPING PRETREATMENT DEMINERALISATION BOILER CHEMICALS HEAT PUMPING OUT WASTE WATER

SOURCES OF WATER LOSSES


BOILER
BLOW DOWN SOOT BLOWING INCLUDING DRAINAGE SAMPLERS PASSING DRAINS OR VENTS ATOMISING STEAM FOR OIL BURNERS DRAINS FROM OIL HEATERS DRAIN DURING START UP BOILER EMPTYING OPERATIONS

SOURCES OF WATER LOSSES


FEED SYSTEM
PUMP GLANDS DRAIN VESSEL OVER FLOW/DRAINS START UP-DRAINAGE VENTING

WATER TREATMENT PLANT


REGENERATION LOSSES LEAKS IN PIPE LINES PUMP GLANDS DE SLUDGING

SOOT BLOWING LOSS


STEAM FLOW RATE = 4500 Kg/Hr STEAM FLOW/BLOWER = 4500*84/3600 = 105 Kg ENTHALPY OF STEAM AT 25Kg/cm2 PR.& 3500C = 745 Kcal/Kg
= 105*745 = 74025 Kcal NUMBER OF BLOWERS = 56
TOTAL HEAT LOSS FOR ONE BLOWING CYCLE = 74025*56 = 41,45,400 Kcal
WATER LOSS FOR ONE BLOWING CYCLE = 5.88 TONNES

HEAT LOSS WITH STEAM / BLOWER

STEAM LOSS FROM TUBE PUNCTURES


DIA.OF HOLE IN mm STEAM LEAK RATE Kg/Hr AT
2 2

1.5 3 4.5 6 25

7Kg/cm 6.5 25 57 100 1615

21Kg/cm 15 60 135 240 3801

LOSS DUE TO HIGH WATER MAKE UP

INCREASED D.M.WATER MAKE UP % 1% INCREASE IN MAKE UP WATER LEADS TO AN ANNUAL LOSS OF Rs 55.83 LAKHS FOR A210MW UNIT

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 00

EFFECT OF THERMAL INSULATION


TEMP.DIFF.BETWEEN SURFACE & AMBIENT 0 C 40 100 150 225 HEAT LOSS Kcal/m2/Hr 600 1410 2170 5430

Conditions causing Poor Performance of Boiler


Non-Optimum Reheat or Superheat steam temperatures. Higher than design economizer exit gas temperature or furnace exit gas temperature caused by poor combustion. Higher than design Re heater or Super heater De-Superheating spray flows.

Conditions causing Poor Performance of Boiler


Fly ash Unburned Carbon or Loss on Ignition greater than 5% for Eastern Bituminous Coals or greater than 1% for Western or Lignite Coals. High Bottom Ash Loss on Ignition. Non-Optimum utilization or distribution of primary air, secondary air and over fire air, if applicable.

Conditions causing Poor Performance of Boiler


Increased auxiliary horsepower consumption by coal pulverizers and fans Reductions in capacity factors due to excessive furnace or convection pass slagging or fouling. Excessive boiler setting air in-leakage. Excessive air heater leakage. Increased cycle losses with increased sootblowing due to non-optimum combustion.

Conditions causing Poor Performance of Boiler


Excessive pulverizer spillage on vertical spindle, roll and race and ball bearing type pulverizers. Reductions in capacity factors due to pulverizer or fan capacity limitations. Reductions in capacity factors due to Superheater or Reheater tube overheating and/or coal-ash corrosion.

Requirements For Achieving Optimum Conditions


Furnace exit must be oxidizing, preferably 3% excess O2. Minimal air in-leakage between the furnace exit and economizer exit. Pulverizer fineness of >75% passing 200 Mesh and <0.3% remaining on 50 Mesh. Secondary (combustion) air balanced to within 5% between burners

Requirements For Achieving Optimum Conditions


Optimum windbox to furnace differential, typically 4" w.c. at full load. Optimum Pulverizer Primary Air to Fuel Ratio. In most cases, air to fuel ratio of 1.8 to 1 on roll and race and ball bearing type pulverizers, and 1.4 to 1 on attrition and ball tube pulverizers.

Requirements For Achieving Optimum Conditions


Fuel balanced between each pulverizers fuel lines to within 10% deviation from the mean. Pulverized coal line dirty airflow balanced between each pulverizers fuel lines within 5%. Pulverized coal line clean air velocities balanced to 2% of the mean.

Requirements For Achieving Optimum Conditions


Coal line minimum velocities of 3300 Fpm. Burner mechanical tolerances with " (circular burners), burner buckets stroked and synchronized to within 2 (tangentially fired). Primary airflow metered and controlled to 3% accuracy.

HEAT INPUT

BOILER

LOSSES

USEFUL OUTPUT HEAT IN STEAM EFFICIENCY = = (HEAT OUTPUT / HEAT INPUT)*100 HEAT OUTPUT = HEAT INPUT - LOSSES

EFFICIENCY = =[(HEAT INPUT - LOSSES)/ HEAT INPUT]*100


= (1- LOSSES/ HEAT INPUT )*100 = 100-%LOSSES

HEAT INPUT
Hi=Qc*Hc*1000

WHERE
Hi - HEAT INPUT Kcal/Hr QC - COAL FLOW T/Hr Hc - CALORIFICVALUE OF FUEL Kcal/Kg

HEAT OUTPUT
Ho =[{(Qs*Hs)-(Qf*Hf)}+{Qr*(Hro-Hri)}]*100 Kcal/Hr WHERE Ho - HEAT OUTPUT Kcal/Hr Qs - MAIN STEAM FLOW T/Hr Hs - MAIN STEAM ENTHALPY Kcal/Kg Qf - FEED WATER FLOW T/Hr Hf - FEED WATER ENTHALPY Kcal/Kg Qr - R.H STEAM FLOW T/Hr Hro - H.R.H STEAM ENTHALPY Kcal/Kg Hri - C.R.H STEAM ENTHALPY Kcal/Kg

BOILER EFFICIENCYCALCULATION DIRECT METHOD


Qs - MAIN STEAM FLOW T/Hr 600 MAIN STEAM PRESSURE Kg/cm2 140 0C MAIN STEAM TEMPERATURE 540 Hs - MAIN STEAM ENTHALPY Kcal/Kg 819.97 Qr - R.H STEAM FLOW T/Hr 563 C.R.H. STEAM PRESSURE Kg/cm2 40 0C C.R.H. STEAM TEMPERATURE 330 Hri - C.R.H. STEAM ENTHALPY Kcal/Kg 727.18 H.R.H. STEAM PRESSURE Kg/cm2 38 0C H.R.H. STEAM TEMPERATURE 540 Hro - H.R.H. STEAM ENTHALPY Kcal/Kg 845.15

BOILER EFFICIENCYCALCULATION DIRECT METHOD


Qf - FEED WATER FLOW T/Hr 610 F.W. PRESSURE Kg/cm2 160 0C F.W TEMPERATURE 540 Hf - FEED WATER ENTHALPY Kcal/Kg 237.3 Ho - HEAT OUTPUT Kcal/Hr 41,36,63,800 [{(Qs*Hs)-(Qf*Hf)}+{Qr*(Hro-Hri)}]*1000 QC COAL FLOW T/Hr 110
Hc - CALORIFICVALUE OF FUEL Kcal/Kg 4300 Hi - HEAT INPUT Kcal/Hr 47,30,00,000 Qc*Hc*1000

EFFICIENCY = Ho/Hi =87.46 %

BOILER EFFICIENCYCALCULATION DIRECT METHOD


ACCURATE MEASUREMENT OF FUEL QUANTITY,HEATING VALUE, FEEDWATER AND STEAM QUANTITIES AND OTHER PARAMETERS ARE REQUIRED ANY ERROR IN MEASUREMENT OF THE ABOVE WILL MAGNIFY THE END RESULT BY FOUR OR FIVE TIMES

BOILER EFFICIENCYCALCULATION INDIRECT/LOSSES METHOD


MORE INFORMATIVE INDIVIDUAL LOSSES ARE ESTABLISHED FOR COMPARISON MEASUREMENTS WILL BE SIMPLE AS TOTAL LOSSES ARE ONLY 10 TO 20% OF HEAT INPUT ANY ERROR IN SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS AFFECT THEEND RESULT ONLY MARGINALLY

LOSSES CALCULATED
COMBUSTIBLE IN ASH/CARBON LOSS DRY GAS LOSS LOSS DUE TO MOISTURE IN FUEL LOSS DUE TO HYDROGEN IN FUEL LOSS DUE TO MOISTURE IN AIR LOSS DUE TO SENSIBLE HEAT OF BOTTOM ASH LOSS DUE TO SENSIBLE HEAT OF FLY ASH MILL REJECTS LOSS RADIATION LOSS

REQUIREMENTS FOR CALCULATING LOSSES


FUEL ANALYSIS
PROXIMATE ULTIMATE CALORIFIC VALUE

FLUE GAS ANALYSIS ASH ANALYSIS FOR CARBON


BOTTOM ASH FLY ASH

AMBIENT AIR TEMPERATURE A.H.GAS OUTLET TEMPERATURE RATE OF MILL REJECTS

COMBUSTIBLE IN ASH/CARBON LOSS


ASH IN COAL A% 40 FLY ASH DISTRIBUTION DF% 85 FLY ASH COMBUSTIBLES CF% 1.3 FLY ASH COMBUSTIBLES UF=A*DF*CF/{100*100*(100-CF)} Kg/Kgf 0.0045 BOTTOM ASH DISTRIBUTION DB% 15 BOTTOM ASHCOMBUSTIBLES CB% 10.2
BOTTOM ASH COMBUSTIBLES UB=A*DB*CB/{100*100*(100-CB)}

Kg/Kgf TOTAL COMBUSTIBLES U = ( UF+UB ) Kg/Kgf

0.0068 0.0113

CALORIFIC VALUE OF COMBUTIBLES = 8077.8 Kcal/Kg GROSS CALORIFIC VALUE OF COAL = GCV Kcal/Kg 4267.00

CARBON LOSS = U*8077.8*100/GCV %

2.14

DRY GAS LOSS


CARBON IN COAL C% 42.52 SULPHUR IN COAL S% 0.42 TOTAL COMBUSTIBLES Ukg/Kgf 0.0113 Sp. HEAT OF GAS Cp KJ/Kg mol 0C 32.00 F.G.TEMP. AT A.H. OUTLET Tg0C 156.00 AMBIENT TEMP. Ta0C 28.00 CO2 IN F.G.AT A.H. OUTLET CO2% 14.20 GROSS CALORIFIC VALUE OF COAL GCV Kcal/Kg 4267.00 WEIGHT OF DRY GAS Wd {(C+S/2.67)-100U}/12CO2 Kgmol/Kgf 0.244 SENSIBLE HEAT OF DRY GAS SH KJ/Kg =Wd*Cp*(Tg-Ta) KJ/Kg 999.42

DRY GAS LOSS

{SH/ (4.186*GCV)}*100 %

5.60

LOSS DUE TO MOISTURE IN FUEL


MOISTURE IN FUEL M% F.G.TEMP. AT A.H. OUTLET Tg 0C AMBIENT TEMP. Ta 0C GROSS CALORIFIC VALUE OF COAL GCV Kcal/Kg SENSIBLE HEAT OF WATER VAPOUR SW KJ/Kg SW=1.88*(Tg-25)+2442+4.2*(25-Ta) KJ/Kg 10.4 156.00 28.00 4267.00 2675.68

LOSS DUE TO MOISTURE=SW*M/(4.186*GCV) % 1.56

LOSS DUE TO HYDROGEN IN FUEL


HYDROGEN IN FUEL H% 3.2

LOSS DUE TO H2 IN FUEL 9*H*SW/(4.186*GCV) % 4.31

LOSS DUE TO MOISTURE IN AIR

CARBON IN FUEL C% 42.52 HYDROGEN IN FUEL H% 3.2 SULPHUR IN FUEL S% 0.42 OXYGEN IN FUEL O% 6.5 GROSS CALORIFIC VALUE OF COAL GCV Kcal/Kg 4267 AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (DRY ) Ta 0 C 28 AMBIENT TEMPERATURE (WET) TW 0 C WEIGHT OF MOISTURE (FROM CHART) MWV Kg/Kg AIR0.028 STOCHIOMETRIC AIR SA SA= (2.66C+8H+S-O)/23.2 Kg/Kgf 5.72 O2 AT A.H. OUTLET O2 % 5.8 TOTAL AIR INCL.EXCESS AIR EA = 21/(21-O2) Kg/Kg SA 1.38 TOTAL MOISTURE IN AIR=MA=SA*EA* MWV Kg/Kgf 0.22 F.G.TEMP. AT A.H. OUTLET Tg 0C 156

LOSS DUE TO MOISTURE IN AIR


=MA*1.88*(Tg-Ta)*100/(4.186*GCV) % 0.3

LOSS DUE TO SENSIBLE HEAT OF BOTTOM ASH


TEMP.OF BOTTOM ASH ABOVE AMBIENT TB 0C 700

SP. HEAT OF BOTTOM ASH CPB Kcal/Kg0C 0.25 ASH IN COAL A% 40.0 BOTTOM ASH DISTRIBUTION DB% 15 GROSS CALORIFIC VALUE OF COAL GCV Kcal/Kg 4267

LOSS DUE TO SENSIBLE HEAT OF BOTTOM ASH =A*DB*CPB*TB*100/(100*100*GCV) % 0.25

LOSS DUE TO SENSIBLE HEAT OF BOTTOM ASH


TEMPERATURE OF FLY ASH Tg 0 C SPECIFIC HEAT OF FLY ASH CPF Kcal/Kg 0C DISTRIBUTION OF FLY ASH DF % LOSS DUE TO SENSIBLE HEAT OF FLY ASH =A*DF*CPF*(Tg-Ta)*100/(100*100*GCV) % 156 0.2

85

0.2

LOSS DUE TO MILL REJECTS


RATE OF MILL REJECTS WRE Kg/Hr 50 FLOAT OF MILL REJECTS F% 5 CALORIFIC VALUE OF MILL REJECTS CVR Kcal/Kg 213.35 CVR = F*GCV/100 DESIGN FUEL FLOW WFD Kg/Hr 90000 GROSS C.V. OF DESIGN FUEL GCVD Kcal/Kg 4500 ACTUAL FUEL FLOW WFA Kg/Hr 94910 WFA = WFD* GCVD / GCV WEIGHT OF MILL REJECTS WR = WRE/WFA Kg/Kgf WR Kg/Kgf

0.0005

HEAT LOSS DUE TO MILL REJECTS = WR*CVR*100/GCV %

0.0025

RADIATION AND UNACCOUNTED LOSSES

PREDICTED AS

0.21 %

ABSTRACT OF BOILER LOSSES


CARBON LOSS 2.14 % DRY GAS LOSS 5.60 % LOSS DUE TO MOISTURE 1.56 % LOSS DUE TO H2 IN FUEL 4.31 % LOSS DUE TO MOISTURE IN AIR 0.30 % LOSS DUE TO S.H OF BOTTOM ASH 0.25 % LOSS DUE TO S.H OF FLY ASH 0.20 % LOSS DUE TO MILL REJECTS 0.0025% RADIATION LOSSES 0.21 % TOTAL LOSSES 14.57 %

BOILER EFFICIENCY
EFFICIENCY = 100-TOTAL LOSSES = 100-14.57 = 85.43 %

QUICK ESTIMATION OF BOILER PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS


1.THEORITICAL DRY AIR REQUIREMENT Th. Dry Air [ WTA ] Kg./Mkcal. Coal 1360 Oil - 1325 Gas 1300

2.QUALITY &COMPOSITION OF FUEL Higher Heating Value Kcal/Kg = [83.052*FC+57.992*VM-14.178*ASH-43.611*MOISTURE+797.746]


3.EXCESS AIR EAi (%) O2 = _____________ 21 - O2 *100 *K1

K1 =1.0 for coal, 0.9 for oil, 0.92 for gas

QUICK ESTIMATION OF BOILER PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS


4.O2 0N DRY BASIS O2 on Dry basis % = O2 on Wet basis / K2

K2 =0.9 for coal, 0.87 for oil, 0.81 for gas

5.AIR & GAS QUANTITY Air Quantity WAI [ Kg./s ] = WTA*HHV*{1+(EAi / 100)}*1.02*WF*10-6 WF =Fuel Quantity Kg/s

Wet gas Quantity at any section can be calculated from excess air level calculated from the fluegas O2 % in that section. Gas Quantity WGI [ Kg./s ] = WF *[WTA*HHV*{1+(EAi/100)}*1.02* 10-6 (Ash/100) +1]

QUICK ESTIMATION OF BOILER PERFORMANCE PARAMETERS


6.AIR LEAKAGE AT AIR HEATER Air Heater leakage AHL % = (O2O - O2I ) / (21 - O2O )*K3

K3 = 91 for coal; 94 for oil; 95 for gas


7.AIR HEATER X RATIO XR = (TGI - TGO -AHL ) / (TAO - TAI ) TGI Gas Temp. AH inlet; TAO AirTemp. AH outlet; TGO Gas Temp. AH outlet; TAI Air Temp. AH inlet;

8.AIR BYPASSING AIR HEATER %OF AIR IN FURNACE AHBY = [ 1 - {(XR*WGI ) / (K4*WAI)}]*100

K4 = 0.95 for coal; 0.93 for oil; 0.92 for gas

SPECIFIC OIL CONSUMPTION


NUMBER OF TRIPS / START UPS START UP TIME
BRINGING MILLS QUICKLY SYSTEMATIC START UPS

IGNITION SUPPORT
UNIT LOADS LOW VOLATILE COALS AIR DISTRIBUTION

FLAME SENSING DEVICES

CAPACITY REDUCTION IN BOILER FUEL INPUT


LOW C.V. FUEL MILLING CAPACITY
GRINDING CAPACITY DRYING CAPACITY CARRYING CAPACITY DRIVE CAPACITY

DRAUGHT SYSTEM
ID FAN LIMITATIONS
PRESSURE DROPS HIGH
A.H.CHOKING CHIMNEY BACK PRESSUREHIGH

CAPACITY REDUCTION IN BOILER


HIGH VOLUME
A.H.LEAKAGE DUCT LEAKAGES HIGH GAS TEMPERATURES

WORN OUT IMPELLERS

METAL TEMPERATURES HIGH


HIGH SPRAY REQUIREMENTS FOULING OF SURFACES